Selected Sources and Further Reading



Bollen, J.D., “English Missionary Societies and the Australian Aborigine”, Journal of Religious History 9 (1977): 263-291.

Bridges, B., “The Church of England and the Aborigines of NSW, 1788-1855", PhD diss., University of NSW, 1978.

Carey, H.M., “Woman’s Peculiar Mission to the Heathen: Protestant Missionary Wives in Australia, 1788-1900". In Long Patient Struggle. Studies in the Role of Women in Australian Christianity, ed. M. Hutchinson and E. Campion, 25-44. Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity, 1994.

________. “Companions in the Wilderness? Missionary Wives in Colonial Australia, 1788-1900", Journal of Religious History 19 (December 1995): 227-48.

________.”Conversion, Gender Order and the Wellington Valley Mission, 1832-43", Religious Change, Conversion and Culture. Sydney: Studies in Society and Culture, 12, 1996, 241-58.

________. Believing in Australia: A Cultural History of Religions. Sydney: Allen and Urwin, 1996.

________. “`The Land of Byamee’: K. Langloh Parker, David Unaipon, and Popular Aboriginality in the Assimilation Era”, Journal of Religious History 22 (June 1998): 200-18.

Cole, K., A History of the Church Missionary Society of Australia. Melbourne: Church Missionary Historical Publications, 1971.

Dormer, M., Dubbo to the Turn of the Century: An illustrated history of Dubbo and districts, 1818-1900. Dubbo: Macquarie Publications, 1981.

Gunson, N., ed., Australian reminiscences and papers of L.E. Threlkeld, missionary to the Aborigines, 1824-1859. Canberra: AIAS, 1974.

Harris, J., One Blood: 200 Years of Aboriginal Encounter with Christianity: A Story of Hope. Sydney: Albatross Books, 1990.

Jervis, J., “Notes on the Settlement of Wellington Valley”, JRAHS 20 (1931) 264-6.

________. The Vale of Tempe: A History of Wellington Valley. Wellington: Wellington Historical Society,1958.

Kabaila, P.R., Wiradjuri Places: The Macquarie River Basin and some places revisited. Canberra: National Library of Australia, 1998.

McDonald, D.I., They Came to a Valley, Wellington 1817-1967. Wellington: Wellington Times Commercial Printing Department, 1968.

Milliss, R., Waterloo Creek: The Australia Day Massacre of 1838, George Gipps and the British Conquest of New South Wales. Sydney: NSWUP, 1992.



Nelson, H.N.,”The Missionaries and the Aborigines in the Port Phillip District”, Historical Studies: Australia and New Zealand 12 (October 1965): 57-67.

Pearson, M, “Bathurst Plains and Beyond: European Colonisation and Aboriginal Resistance”, Aboriginal History 8 (1984): 63-79.

Perry, T.M., “The Spread of Rural Settlement in NSW, 1788-1826", Historical Studies: Australia and New Zealand 6 (May 1955): 377-95.

________. Australia's First Frontier: The Spread of Settlement in New South Wales, 1788-1829. Melbourne: MUP, 1963.

Porter, R., Eumalga, or the White Chief. 2nd ed. Wellington: Wellington Times, 1947.

Read, Peter, ”`Breaking up these camps entirely': the dispersal policy in Wiradjuri country 1909-1929", Aboriginal History 8 (1984): 45-55.

________. ”`A Rape of the Soul so Profound’: Some Reflections on the Dispersal Policy in NSW”, Aboriginal History 7 (1983): 23-32.

________. A Hundred Years War: The Wiradjuri People and the State. Canberra: ANUP, 1988.

Redford, T., Official Souvenir, Back to Wellington, September 22nd to 27th, 1924. Sydney: National Publicity Company, 1924.

Woolmington, J., “Early Christian Missions to the Australian Aborigines”, Historian 26 (October 1974): 1-8.

________. “Wellington Valley in 1838, A House Divided Against Itself”, The Push From the Bush 16 (October 1983): 24-32.

________. “Missionary Attitudes to the Baptism of Australian Aborigines Before 1850", The Journal of Religious History 13 (1985): 283-93.

________. "`Humble Artisans’ and `Untutored Savages’”, JAS 16 (May 1985): 51-61.

________. “The civilisation/christianisation debate and the Australian Aborigines”, Aboriginal History 10 (1986): 90-98.

________.”Writing on the Sand: The First Missions to Aborigines in Eastern Australia”. In Aboriginal Australians and Christian Missions: Ethnographic and Historical Studies, ed. Swain, Tony and Deborah Bird Rose, 77-91. Adelaide: Australian Association for Religious Studies, 1988.

Wright, D., “The First Wesleyan Mission to the Aborigines of New South Wales - A Brief Historical Note”, Church Heritage 4 (September 1986): 245-53.



Articles and papers arising from research conducted for the Wellington Valley Project.

1. Abstract of Hilary M. Carey, "`The Land of Byamee’: K. Langloh Parker, David Unaipon, and Popular Aboriginality in the Assimilation Era", Journal of Religious History 22 (June 1998): 200-18.

Popular Aboriginal legendary tales have been one of the most signficant ways in which Aboriginality has been constructed in Australia, but they have not received much attention prior to this paper. Beginning with missionary accounts of Baiame, a deity associated with Gamilaraay (Kamilaroi) and Wiradhuri (Wiradjuri) speaking peoples of colonial Australia, the author examines the way in which the theme of the Great Spirit or Baiame is developed in popular mythology. The focus is placed on two key writers: K. Langloh Parker and David Unaipon. It is argued that the popular discourse of "The Land of Byamee" reflected the political constraints of the assimilation era.

2. Abstract of David Andrew Roberts, "`A sort of inland Norfolk Island'? Isolation, coercion and resistance on the Wellington Valley convict station, 1823-26", Journal of Australian Colonial History 2 (April 2000), 50-72.

Between 1823 and 1832 the New South Wales colonial government founded and maintained a remote convict settlement on the lower Macquarie River at Wellington Valley in the central-west of New South Wales. It was a small and relatively insignificant settlement, operating as a government agricultural farm for around 80 individuals, mostly discarded malcontents who deeply resented the experience. Case studies have been valuable tools in understanding the convict experience for masters and men, and particular problematic situation at Wellington raises broader questions about life and labour in penal New South Wales, especially the propensity for violence and misrule. This article considers whether various circumstances, such as the remoteness of the station and the questionable temperament of its commandant, Lt. Percy Simpson, produced a regime of work and punishment that was excessively brutal and oppressive.
Images of a convict system characterised by privation, cruelty and tyranny have dominated popular perceptions of the convict past. These stereotypes are fundamentally challenged by understanding that power relations between master and convict were much more complex, that convicts possessed certain freedoms, opportunities, rights and avenues of resistance, and that their masters employed more sophisticated, flexible systems of labour management to extract obedience and performance. The focus shifts from oppression and misrule to judicious management and productive employment. But the severity of certain remote work situations, such as at Moreton Bay and Norfolk Island, is part of the equation. In relation to Simpson's settlement we should not overcorrect the classical stereotypes by `draining almost all the blood from the story'.