viii. Jan-Dec 1840

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Journal 8: 1840, p.1.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-176


[page] 1

James Gunther Missionary
Wellington Valley New Holland.
for 1840.

[1 January 1840]
January 1st.
Another year has commenced, and my earnest prayer is that this at last might prove a year of better things; that the Lord might manifest his saving grace among our poor Aborigines; that some might be brought under the sceptre of Christ for the glory of His name & our encouragement. Faith and patience are, indeed, much tried with us, we are, at times, ready to despair, not so much on account of the stubborness [sic] of the Natives - grievous & discouraging as that is; but rather on account of so many other difficulties under which we labour.
I had a few young men reading to me, as usual. Several are making progress and thus the way will be paved, at least, to their understandings.

[3 January 1840]
Jany 3.
Most of our Young men have been off to the Camp during the two last nights, but came back in the mornings. They allege, that they were absenting themselves, in the night, to avoid the temptation of stealing the peaches in the Garden. No one seems to have been at them, since I watched and found out their schemes (a few days ago).

[4 January 1840]
Jany 4.
For the last three days I was principally engaged in pursuing the study of the Aboriginal language. Am often gratified, when I find some fresh words; for it is not an easy task to elicit them.

[5 January 1840]
This morning about 10 Young men attended Divine Service; but went off to bathe, & did not return for the afternoon Service. Of Europeans we had both times few.

Journal 8: 1840, p.2.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-177


[page] 2

[7 January 1840]
January 7.
Added yesterday & to day a few more words to my Vocabulary. The Young men have been rather unsettled the last two days. There are a good number of elderly men at the Camp; and it appears contemplating a fight, and, consequently, our young men can, hardly, avoid running to the Camp, at least in the night. During day however they are mostly with us; either at work, or reading, or endeavouring to communicate something of the language to me.

[8 January 1840]
Jany 8.
As my Pupils delayed coming from the Camp this morning, I went to look after them, but met them coming, about a mile off. They were rather delighted I should have gone after them, and, not a little amused at my carrying a stick, asking me, whether I was going to use it for them. They all were in the best humour during the day, and, availing myself of the favourable opportunity, I obtained a considerable number of words & phrases. Some time since I had difficulty to get any more fresh words, & thought I have all the language contains. I now find out my mistake, and see that the language is richer than I imagined, although many essential works, to express Scripture ideas, are evidently lacking.
At night I went to the Native Camp. Some of its inmates were rather surprised & pleased I should travel the distance (2 miles), over a rough & hilly path, during the dark, in order to see them. They were all in anxious expectation of a great & interesting dance (I believe a new piece) to be performed, at the arrival of a distant tribe, shortly expected.

[9 January 1840]
Jany 9.
None of my Young men came from the Camp to day but several women made their appearance; some of them were engaged by Mrs G. in washing, whilst I employed a few others, for a time, by asking them many things in the language, and attained a few fresh words. I was forcibly struck at this occasion, how many of their words are polluted

Journal 8: 1840, p.3.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-178


[page] 3

by obscene ideas annexed to them, betraying the shocking sensuality, and filthy practises of these poor savages. I was fully confirmed in my opinion, that the women are mostly treated as prostitutes it seems there is never a female kept sacred to her husband. At the same time I must own, that the women are more degraded & shameless than the men; The latter hesitate far more than the former, at exposing their vile practices.

[10 January 1840]
Jany 10.
The Young men came again to day. Two were reading to me, for a considerable time; others were at work; but off they must be early in the afternoon, to be in time for the performance of the great dance, expected to take place this evening, 6 miles from here. Not one could be induced to stay. Cochrane said: “Well good bye! I am sorry I am going, can’t help it.” Previously he observed, he was in a hurry to go, Satan was stirring him up to it. I observed that Bungary had, at last, conformed to the practice of making incisions in the skin, to which he was long opposed. I reproved him for it & reminded him of his former opposition. It is not many months since, that he, significantly, pointed out to me a passage of the Bible prohibiting cuttings in the flesh. He was at a loss to reply but said, at last, joined by Cochrane, that the Women thought those “ugly fellows” who had no marks on their skin “Aha!” I replied “you wish to please the women?” Bungary felt ashamed & wanted to deny it; but Cochrane, in his usual candour, called out: “Certainly we do.” I rejoined, “I believe you now speak the truth.” “Yes, he continued, it is true; I always speak the truth.”

[14 January 1840]
Jany 14.
I had long contemplated a journey into the bush, and as all the Young men, except one, have gone on an excursion yesterday from which I understand they will not return soon, I availed myself of the leisure

Journal 8: 1840, p.4.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-179


[page] 4

time, and set out to day on a journey, leaving home about 11 o’clock. About 8 miles off I overtook two men with whom I entered into some conversation about religion. They were both of the Prison population, & have been long in the Colony. They both acknowledged that they, at home, had belonged (not least their relatives) to the Wesleyan connexion. But if they ever possessed any religion, there is, certainly, very little left. One observed, he had not above twice, or three times, had an opportunity of attending Divine Service, since he had been in the Colony. These poor men, as I frequently discover, are too ready to excuse themselves from the concerns of religion, on account of the lack of opportunity to enjoy the means of grace. However most of the Convicts deserve much pity, not so much for being transported from their home, but for being so often & long deprived of religious privileges. They accepted of some Tracts. When drawing near a Station, 14 miles from here, I was overtaken by a Gentleman well known to me; his horse being much inclined to gallop, my horse began to vie with the former, and we approached the Station in great speed, when a dog, tied up there, grew very fierce, pulled up the post to which it was tied, and dragging it along, ran towards my grey horse. He got shy & jumped separately sideways, when, at last, I could no longer manage him & was thrown; yet, thank God, without sustaining the least injury. But, he ran away & made towards home. However, the Gentleman occupying the Station, was kind enough to send a man after, who after two hours delay brought him back. Being thus delayed, I could not proceed as far as I wished and had to stay at a Station (Murrumbidgery), where I did not much fancy to stay. I spent indeed the evening uncomfortably, there being a number of Young gentlemen, rather giddy. I could find no opportunity to enter upon religion.

Journal 8: 1840, p.5.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-180


[page] 5

[15 January 1840]
Jany 15.
Proceeded this morning to Wallandurai, about 12 miles from where I started in the morning, to the left of the Macquarie river. About a mile off the plain I espied a shepherd’s hut, where I made enquiries after the road, & was glad to be so near. In the Shepherd I recognised a man whom I had seen & conversed with before. He is an Irish Immigrant, a Roman Catholic, rather intelligent & of some education. We got into a little controversy. He had a family who seemed to be in a very wretched condition, at least, I have never seen Europeans more dirty & ragged. Not far from the Sheep Station I also discovered a Native Camp, containing 7 Blacks, well known to me. Some were quite delighted to see me, & would shake hands. I had a little conversation with them. Having arrived at W. I was sorry to find the Superintendent not at home. I spent the afternoon by conversing with various Europeans that were about, and a Black. Late in the evening the Superintendent, Mr Williams came home. He is an old acquaintance of ours, having been Second mate in the Ship we came out in, a very steady & amiable young man. I had Evening prayers with a few Europeans.

[16 January 1840]
Jany 16.
Mr Williams collected all his men together for Evening prayers; there being rather a good number as washing & shearing the sheep just commences with them. In the afternoon I turned to the right again, and arrived at Gumbulgel Gumbang (or more properly Gumbugulgumang) near the Macquarie, when it was getting dark. The Superintendent, Mr Sheridan, received me friendly. He has lately come from Moreton Bay, and knew Mr Handt there, and the German missionaries of Dr Lang’s Mission; he could give me some information about these Missionaries, and the Aborigines there. There, at his Station, I was glad to find a great number of Blacks, and also all my Young men, who were delighted to see me. I had Evening prayers, but hardly any Europeans would attend, mostly excusing themselves being Roman Catholics.

People in WellPro Directory: Sheridan, B.

Journal 8: 1840, p.6.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-181


[page] 6

But of the great number of men there was we felt certain there were a number of Protestants among them. Bungary and Paddy Fisher attended, who indeed had come previously from the Camp to enquire, whether I was going to have Prayers, when Mr Sheridan observed “Well, these put our Europeans to shame”, adding, that Bungary had been there a short time since, and lectured them i.e. several Gentlemen, thinking they cared so little about religion.

[17 January 1840]
Jany 17.
I spent most of the day at this place conversing with several Natives about religion & their immortal soul, though being not sufficiently at home in the language, I could not enter so much in the subject as I wished; it served, at least, as an exercise for me. I asked one of the Nat: boys, whether he would not go with me to Wellington. “No, he replied, too much shifting sit down there.” I could not at once understand his meaning, but learned, on further inquiry, that he meant the Nat: children, at our School, were principally fed with siftings. I am sorry to add that many of the Natives, who knew less of me, were apprehensive I should take their Children by force, similar to what Mr Watson has done. One of the women, I was informed this morning, was minding some sheep last night, when I arrived, a little distance off, and, when some body told her “The Parson has come” she left her sheep & ran to the Camp, to guard her boy there, apprehending it was Mr Watson that had come. To day, however, their apprehensions gradually subsided, as there were many Natives who knew me well, & assured the rest, that I would not forcibly take a child. In consequence of my horse having strayed out of the Paddock, I was delayed till evening, when I proceeded 3 miles farther to a Station, called, Dundallimal.[59]

[18 January 1840]
Jany 18 Sunday.
I felt very lonely & uncomfortable, this morning, having not a single person about me, however Kindly I am treated by the people at this Station, with whom I could spend my Sabbath in a Christian manner. Oh! how little people, at home, know, what privileges they enjoy, and how much we miss Christian society! I succeeded however, to get a little congregation of Europeans, to whom

People in WellPro Directory: Sheridan, B.

Journal 8: 1840, p.7.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-182


[page] 7

I read Prayers, and gave them an extemporaneous address. Just before Service I beheld a number of Blacks, coming back, from an excursion lower down the River; with several of them I conversed about religion; one wanted to deny that he had a soul; but when I contradicted him, he gave evident signs, that he was, by no means, certain in his unbelief, but rather wished it would be so, as he said. Several of them were known to me, & among them was Old Fred, who has for months been absent from the Mission. I learned that he is much dissatisfied with Mr W. and the members of the Mission, generally. His principal complaint is, that Mr W. had promised him one of the Girls for wife, & he could not get her. There is too much reason to fear, that there was little, or, no sincerity in his former professions of religion. Even, before he left us; I discovered too often the hypocrite in him. So such he is commonly considered by Europeans in the bush; for, at one time, he will repeat part of the Church Service to them, and reprove them for their carelessness about religion; at other times, he will swear, use all manner of bad language & deride the Missionaries.
In the afternoon I went to visit a Station on the other side (right hand) of the Macquarie, called Dubbo. I had to pass a very numerous encampment of Blacks, & made a short stay. The Wellington Blacks, with our Young men, had advanced thus far, and others from further down the River had come up to them. When I approached the Camp, I saw several children running away towards the bushes at the Riverside, I did not give it any thought at the time, but learned afterwards, they had run away from me, being fearful I should take them. I also spoke to a woman whom I knew, but had not seen her for some time; and inquired after her two Children whom I had seen before (a young infant she had with her). She told me they were both dead, of one I had heard it was dead, but of the eldest boy I had not heard. I was surprised & sorry; but asked afterwards her husband who told me “No my boy not dead” and

Journal 8: 1840, p.8.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-183


[page] 8

referring to his wife’s story, observed “That fellow stupid, she tell you wrong, that fellow think you take boy.” But he added, “I know well you take it not.” I am truly distressed that such a prejudice should exist, & still more that occassion [sic] has been given, by one of our number, for such a unfavourable impression upon the minds of the Blacks.
I could get no congregation at Dubbo; most of the men had dispersed others said they were Roman Catholics, and the Superintendent being a Roman Catholic also, I was not very likely to succeed. I met, however, with a very respectable couple of Europeans with whom I had an hour’s pleasant conversation. Whilst at Dubbo, we were suddenly surprised with the cry of a fight among the Natives, only a few hundred yards off. I ran off in a great haste to prevent it, if possible. I was glad to find that some of our Young men had exerted themselves, especially, Cochrane & Lowry, to prevent an outrage; and they were pleased I came to aid them. They were two old men that were fighting Mayol Jacky & Miggy. Their rage was certainly very great, truly savage; they also exhibited a great deal of pride vanity & self conceit, to show their strength & courage. We succeeded at last to keep them aloof from each other but they went on talking & scolding for more than an hour after. This circumstance prevented me from proceeding to another station, as I intended, and I took up my abode once more at Dundallimal. After dark the Blacks commenced a great dance, at which I was present; and a number of Europeans. I was sorry to see that our Young men were the principal performers. It was the wildest & most curious dance I ever saw, - the fresh piece; lately came up, & now going to all the tribes for, perhaps hundreds of miles. They were all down the front painted quite white, except just in the middle beginning from the forhead [sic] one black streak was left. The number of Natives present was about a hundred.

Journal 8: 1840, p.9.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-184

[page] 9

[19 January 1840]
January 19.
Left at sunrise this morning, to proceed farther down the River. Met one Black whom I knew, & two shepherds with whom I conversed a little and gave some tracts to. After 8 miles ride I reached Darrambangammia[?], where I took breakfast. There was a young Aboriginal man of very mild and pleasing disposition waiting at table, I also saw a Boy that had come from a great distance, yet spoke the same dialect. I also conversed with several women that were encamping near the station. I usually ask the Blacks some such question as: “Have you a soul? What will become of you if you die?” etc or, “Who has made the earth & everything etc?” The women I addressed seemed to have never heard or seen a missionary, and looked strangely, when I told them, I was come to teach them respecting the soul & God. Some burst forth into laughing; one said she would die altogether, another denied that she had a soul. Such assertions are very common among them & I fear some Europeans strengthen them in these infidel notions. But it is remarkable, they, always seem to blush when I contradict them. One of these women had a half cast child (a very common thing I am sorry to say) a Girl of 2 years old, whose features were so perfectly European, and colour so light , that it could hardly be distinguished from an English child.
After breakfast & this conversation, I proceeded. After a few miles ride lost the road i.e. a dray track, sometimes, scarcely to be discerned. However I kept near the river side and fell in, at last, with a Shepherd who directed me the short cut. He gladly accepted of some tracts. About 1 o’clock I reached a Station called Monor where I allowed my horse a little rest & let him feed about. I also was refreshed by the Hutkeeper with a quart pot full of tea. He said he knew me & would not allow me to use my own tea, which I carried along with me. I must admit that those kind of men in the bush, though mostly of the Convict origin, are usually very hospitable to travellers. Having proceeded on my journey, a few miles more I felt again rather uncertain about the road, when I suddenly heard, what I thought the voice of a Black. I rode about a hundred yards into the direction, and espied a Young man minding a flock of sheep. He was glad to hear I was a Missionary of Wellington; he had been there a number of years since.

Journal 8: 1840, p.10.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-185


[page] 10

It was extremely hot today so that I was glad when, about 5 o’clock, I arrived at Euromeda (properly Nguramiddang) [60] the Station I intended to make. I was kindly received by the Superintendant, an elderly Gentleman of the name of Thurlow (He told me his Father was a Clergyman & supporter of the C.M.S. and he himself at school together with our present Secretary the Revd Wm. Jowett:) There were about a dozen Aborigines about the place; they ran to see me and were surprised & delighted, I could speak a little to them in their own language. They seemed to be pleased to hear, that I had come to this country in order to teach the Natives.

[20 January 1840]
January 20.
Mr Thurlow* accompanied me 5 miles farther down the River, where he expected we should find a good number of Blacks. We found however not so great a number as was expected. There were about 10 men & several women, three or four had come down from Mr T. Station. I had a good deal of conversation with them, and they were pleased to hear a White man speak something of their language. It is remarkable that most of them are inclined to disbelieve their being possessed of a soul, and, invariably, cannot hide a consciousness of the fact, against their will, as it seems. When I asked some of them who had made the earth, the water, trees etc they answered, they did no know. I inquired whether Baiamai (their supposed deity) had made these things some said yes, & ennumerated many things which they thought he had made. One seemed to wish, to extol Baiamai’s kindness, & said, with some emphasis; “Baiamai has made the ground, the water, trees, oppossum, kangeroo etc etc, and has given them to us men.” I told them that I would teach them about Baiamai whom we called God. For I must own, I am almost ready to think, that it might be desirable, to assume the appellation, Baiamai; for the name of the Deity since their ideas connected with it are partly becoming & partly may be corrected. I have little doubt their notions of Baiamai, is, as it were, a remaining spark of the knowledge of the true God. Whatever absurd notions they may have mixed up with the knowledge of him; they believe that he is the Creator, that he is possessed of great power, that he is eternal & invisible, yet sees us. Asking some women, where their soul would go to when they die, one said, she knew not, another answered, “up on high,” another added, “Very far off.” I am grieved to add that even these distant tribes, few of whom have ever seen a Missionary, are impressed with an unfavourable opinion of us, as if we were kidnapping their Children

People in WellPro Directory: Jowett, Reverend W. | Thurlow, Mr

Journal 8: 1840, p.11.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-186


[page] 11

They have heard of Mr W. having taken some by force (one he took so in this neighbourhood more than two years ago, as I now learned more fully). When they heard of my approach they hid their children. I assured them, I should not take any, unless they gave them to me. Having returned to Mr Thurlow’s Station I understood, that several Black children had been secreted last evening, when I arrived & this morning and when I espied, this evening, some of them, they ran away as fast they could. Various Europeans assured them I would not take any by force, but they would scarcely get rid of their apprehensions. We collected this evening a congregation of Europeans to whom I gave an address. There are a few more Stations beyond this (this is about 60 miles from Wellington), but as I could procure no guide, I was obliged to give up the intention of going farther.

[21 January 1840]
Jany 21.
Having understood that the many Natives who had been here, lately had gone towards Wallandurai, where I was in coming down, I resolved to go through the bush into that direction. Mr Thurlow ordered one of the Blacks at his Station to show me the road all the way. However, after having gone with me about 6 miles he was unwilling to proceed any father, and thought as there was a dray track, though very indistinct, I should be able to find my way. The whole distance I had to go was towards 30 miles. I rode on fast & safe through the dreary bush, without seeing a human face for about 20 miles, when I met a Stockman. Some tea would have been a great refreshment to me, which I could have made, had I found water. I only past two water holes & their contents were far too muddy to use. Towards the end of my journey I lost my way, but this circumstance fortunately led me to a little Nat: Camp of women & a boy. One woman wanted to hide herself and on inquiry I discovered, that she was Kitty who was once living at the Mission, with George, one of our Young men, but ran away in the night. I asked her who was now her husband, she said no body. Another woman, however, wispered [sic] to me “White fellow (White man.)” when the former wispered to the latter “Karia* yalla!” (Don’t say it.) I am grieved to say that, from all I have observed in my journey, I feel convinced that the intercourse between White men & Black female is carried extremely far. - Soon after I came to a Station called Wimbangalong[?], where I obtained a drink

People in WellPro Directory: Thurlow, Mr

Journal 8: 1840, p.12.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-187

[page] 12

of milk & water, which was very acceptable. Hence I cantered away 3 miles more & arrived at Wallandurai, with my friend Mr Williams. I could no where hear, or, see any thing of the great number of Natives whom I sought for. There were, however, several at this place, one of whom, a very old man, well known to me, was very ill scarcely expected to survive till the morning. Of spiritual comfort the poor man felt no need; he has always evinced such a stupor & thoughtlessness, that we never could make him understand any thing; but it proved a great comfort to him that I gave him a little tea & sugar which I had saved from my journey. A good draught of tea proves to these poor creatures sometimes as good as medicine.

[22 January 1840]
Jany 22.
The Old man seemed to be rather better this morning. After Morning prayers I hastened towards home, and arrived safely, thank God! at the Mission House about 4 o’clock pm finding all well at home. I just was in time to escape a shower of rain.
Half an hour after my arrival, the Roman Catholic Bishop, with three of his priests, paid us a visit, but made a short stay. I had no wish to detain them. They made a longer stay at Mr Watson’s examining, as I understood, his Native children. My Young men had not come back from the bush.

[25 January 1840]
Jany 25.
We had a small congregation to day, both of Europeans & Aborigines. I officiated in the morning & Mr W. in the afternoon.

[26 January 1840]
Jany 26.
We had visit to day from Mr Hale; an American Gentleman, belonging to the U.S. Squadron, at present in Sydney harbour. His professed object is to make collections of different languages. He has been on many of the Mission Stations in the South seas.

[31 January 1840]
Jany 31st.
Spent the last few days principally in the study of the Nat: language & gave now & then a reading lesson to some Young men who have come back from the bush.

[8 February 1840]
February 8th.
My eyes have been very bad again for the last week, so that I can do nothing in the way of reading and writing, except hearing now & then some Young men read. Mrs G. taught them occasionally. But they were mostly engaged in work, such as, splitting slabs etc.

[9 February 1840]
Febry 9.
I was unable to perform Divine Service on account of my bad eyes & left both Services to Mr Watson.

People in WellPro Directory: Hale, Horatio

Journal 8: 1840, p.13.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-188


[page] 13

[12 February 1840]
February 12th.
Mr Trappit, a friend of mine, having arrived at the Mission late, last night, intending to take a journey to a certain district, which I have long wished to visit, I suddenly resolved this morning to accompany him. Leaving home about 10 o’clock am we travelled N.E. At a distance of about 20 miles we saw at a Station a young Aboriginal man, employed as shepherd, who seems to be particularly steady, far less addicted then the generality of his country men to a wandering life. He told me he had not seen a Black for many months. I had some conversation with him, respecting his soul. He promised to come soon to Wellington. We arrived, rather exhausted, through the heat of the day, an hour after dark, at a Farm called Guntawang, where we were hospitably received. We found no Blacks, here & were informed, that they were congregated near Mudgee to have a fight.

[13 February 1840]
Febry 13.
After proceeding 10 miles this morning we reached another European farm, where we took some refreshment. I regretted to hear there was a considerable number of Aborigines here last night, but had disappeared this morning. One was remaining with whom I conversed, endeavouring to collect a few words of his dialect, which is the Yarruyarru. He understood the Wirradurri dialect (of Wellington) also. A little before dark we reached another European station, where we resolved to stay as it had begun to be rainy. To my great satisfaction I found a goodly number (about 50) Blacks at the place. I first had a conversation with one who spoke the Yarruyarru; the difference between this & the Wirradurri appears to be not great. We then proceeded to the Camp; most of its inmates belonged to distant tribes, speaking the Gammilurai dialect. Some of them understood the Wirradurri; by means of which I was able to obtain some words of their dialect. I told them my object for coming to this country viz: to teach the Aborigines respecting their immortal soul, which rather surprised & pleased

People in WellPro Directory: Trappit, W.T.

Journal 8: 1840, p.14.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-189


[page] 14

them and one called out: “Parten!” (Parson) meaning I must be a parson. They had some knowledge of the Mission at Wellington, though living upwards of a hundred miles off. There were two women who were of the Wellington tribe, but, as often happens, snatched away by another tribe.
The melancholy cry of mourning was heard during the evening at the Camp, they were also smoking boughs, an Old man having died the previous day of one of the neighbouring tribes. This is always an affecting scene, especially, when it is remembered, that they “weep as those who have no hope.”

[14 February 1840]
Febry 14.
We had heavy rain last night & this morning, in consequence of which we were detained. I was rather glad of it and availed myself of the opportunity, to collect some thing more of Gammilurai dialect. They were much struck at my minute inquiries; especially, when I wanted to carry various Verbs through their Tenses; some, frequently, burst forth into laughing at my asking again & again after the same Verb in a different Tense. The difference between this dialect & the Wirradurri is very considerable, many words having altogether a different root; still I could trace a similarity. I was much pleased at one of them asking me: “Who made the earth?” etc I replied whether he knew, when he said “yes” in English, “God’s Master told him.” I rejoined “Well, that good master” and enlarged upon the subject.
In the afternoon we proceeded in our N.E. direction, and, after 30 miles quick ride, arrived, about two hours after dark, at a European station called Dirridgirri. The Overseer & his wife behaved rather more hospitably to, as than their Master who had just come up from the country on a visit.

[15 February 1840]
Febry 15.
Early in the morning the Master came to us apologising for his want of hospitality last night, and desired us to take breakfast with him. On our way farther on, we, called at a Sheep station, where I gave the Hutkeeper some tracts & had a little conversation with him. He was glad to receive the tracts, and said he had only part of the N.T. in his possession. From a hilly, rocky, country we were now getting into a very fine country, more adapted for cultivation; we were getting near the Goulburn River. At the next European

Journal 8: 1840, p.15.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-190

[page] 15

establishment we were informed of a Shepherd having been killed in the immediate neighbourhood, yesterday, by a bushranger. Many other outrages we were told had been committed, lately, by the bushrangers at present infesting the district and keeping people in constant dread. At the very farm we were at, they had very recently not only plundered all they could; but, maliciously, destroyed many things they were unable to take. After 20 miles ride we arrived at the Station, we intended, called Cockerbil, a farm belonging to Revd. Jones Esqr. M.C.[?]. The Superintendent received us friendly. The distance from Wellington is about 120 miles, in the direction towards the celebrated Hunter district.

[16 February 1840]
Febry 16.
Early in the morning, when I was getting up, I observed about 15 Blacks standing before the house. I hastened to see them. They all spoke Gammilurai, but two understood a little Wirradurri & interpreted for the rest. I was surprised they knew a little of the Wellington Mission, as their is so little intercourse between the inhabitants of this district & those of Wellington, whether White or Black, and very little travelling to & fro the road we came. I was pleased to observe that these Blacks are less apt to deny their being possessed of a soul, than those of the Wellington district. My speaking about religion made them soon call out: “Parten!” (parson). One of them when I asked what would become of his soul after death, answered in English: “Jump up White fellow!” A notion I believe sometimes put in the heads of these poor Blacks by thoughtless Europeans. The belief into transmigration of the soul is, I am certain, not general among these Blacks as some Europeans will assert, though I rather suppose that some traces of it are found among the tribes of some districts.
At 11 o’clock the men of the farm mostly assembled for Divine Service. My congregation consisted of about 15 persons. The were with few exceptions very attentive, many have probably not heard a sermon for years, no clergyman having ever visited these parts.

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The Blacks were sitting & listening outside under the Verandah, and when I went out to them, after Service, one observed: “Parten! that like Church, that little Church.” He had been at Church at Maitland & Sydney.
In the afternoon I went to a neighbouring farm to baptise a European infant & returned in the evening.

[17 February 1840]
Febry 17.
This morning early a party expected yesterday, came with two Children applying for baptism. One Child was 4 years old, the parents having never before had an opportunity to have it baptised. After the ceremony I left to proceed on my way, homeward, my companion being detained, on account of business. Having heard of another Child in the neighbourhood, whose parents wished to have it baptised, I made a little round in order to see after the Child. But when I came to the Station, the Superintendent told me, that the parents objected to the Child being baptised by me, as I was a Minister of the Church of England, they being Presbyterians. On my road father on, I met 3 Police men mounted, in search of bushrangers. At 2 o’clock I reached Cassilis, a Mr Busby’s Farm where I was very kindly received. In the evening I had Prayers with the men of the place about 12 in number.

[18 February 1840]
Febry 18.
Proceeded on my return, intending to take partly a different road from the one I came by. After about 8 miles I observed near a Station a few Blacks. An old woman, when I conversed with her & told her my object in coming to this country, seemed to be quite astonished, and, as if full of joy, raised and clapped her hands. Not that I think she could enter into the importance of my object, but she was, at least, pleased to perceive that I should take so much interest in the welfare of the Blacks. At the Station I received some refreshment.
I lost my road to day & to my great astonishment & disappointment found myself, towards evening at Cassilis, whence I started in the morning only coming there by a different road from the one I took in the morning. So I had no choice but to take up once more my old quarters.

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[19 February 1840]
Febry 19.
This was another day of disappointment & delay. My horse galloped away with me at a most furious rate when I was starting, before I had my right foot in the stirrup. I managed to keep myself about half a mile but at last to avoid greater danger yielded to be thrown. I strained my leg a little and it was thought advisable, I should rest during the day, my host urging upon me to day, I yielded with much reluctance.

[20 February 1840]
Febry 20.
Left his morning accompanied by two Gentlemen, for some distance. I went by the road I came, saw neither in going or returning a Black in this part nor are there many European stations.
Towards evening I made a call at a Sheep station, when some of the Shepherds were very thankful for some tracts; they also offered to accommodate me for the night as well as they could. But as there was no paddoc [sic] to secure my horse I hastened on to ride another 12 miles, to a station when I was in coming[?]. Unfortunately the night overtook me when I was 5 miles off the place, & having to turn off the main road, through the bush, I lost myself and was obliged for the night to roam about in the bush. My horse was tired out, having travelled at least 45 to 50 miles & determined to graze about. I had no alternative but to lead him about whilst feeding. I had no idea which direction to take, but heard, at last, the bleating of sheep & dogs barking. I followed the direction of the sound & reached a little before day break a Sheep station occupied by two shepherds. They were very anxious to give me some refreshment, & soon had a quart pot of tea ready & a kind of pancake having no bread or damper. These shepherds, though usually of the Convict class, are generally very hospitable. I gave them a few tracts.

[21 February 1840]
Febry 21.
At sunrise I started again, having 9 miles to go to the Station I intended. Arrived there, I rested myself for a few hours, but could not sleep. Having also caught a cold in the night, I felt very uncomfortable but still proceeded towards Mudgee. My Horse, in consequence of yesterday’s & last night’s fatigue & for want of food went very slowly; he carried me about 60[?] miles when

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I arrived at Mr Lowe’s Wilbertree, near Mudgee, where I was very hospitably received. I felt very poor in the evening.

[22 February 1840]
Febry 22.
I was truly thankful for last night’s rest and recovered from my fatigue & headache. I proceeded to Mudgee, 5 miles to see whether I could get a congregation there on tomorrow’s Sunday. However, the New Township consists only of a Public House (always the first & grand thing required in this Country) & a few little bark huts. But it is a cheering sight, and, unparalleled, I venture to say, in New South Wales, that a Church is in course of erection ere any thing like a township can be seen. The Church is wanted as there are several Farming establishments near. To one of them Mr Cox’s, when I had reason to expect the best congregation I went in the afternoon.
At Mudgee I saw an Aboriginal youth from the Castlereigh River who spoke Wirradurrri, and assured me that Wirradurri was the common dialect in his district. Two days ago I met a boy on the road from the same district proving the same thing. This shows, that our dialect is spoken rather extensively. The Castlereigh was parallel with the Macquarie about 80 miles, as far as I can guess to the N. or N.NW.

[23 February 1840]
Febr 23.
Performed Divine Service in the morning at Mr Coxe’s, having about 14 persons to attend. From here I went to another neighbouring farm, where I had made an appointment to baptise a Child; I expected, at the same time, to have a congregation, could, however, not succeed, as the men were dispersed. It is truly distressing with what indifference, to say the least, the generality of men treat the subject of religion. Having baptised the Infant I returned to Wilbertree and had there another Service with a small congregation. To my surprise I met here; at Mr Lowe’s, my Companion again, who had since come back from the journey, having had no such delays as I had. Late in the evening we went two miles farther or nearer towards home & stayed at a farm belonging to a member of the same family as the former. Having not got rid of the cold I caught the other night, I felt very poorly this evening

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pains all over the body & shivering so that I was obliged to go to bed without delay.

[24 February 1840]
Febr 24.
Felt a little better this morning though by no means well, still we were determined to proceed & if possible to make home to day, having about 50 miles. With some difficulty, at least as regarded my state of health, we reached Wellington Valley late in the night. We had much cause for gratitude to Almighty God, for his care & protection, especially, when we remembered that greater part of the country, through which we travelled, is invested with bands of desperate bushrangers.

[26 February 1840]
Febr 26.
I am, thank God, fast recovering from the severe cold I brought home from my journey. Our Young men were much pleased & interested to day, when I gave them a narrative of my journey, and the Natives I had seen with the various observations they made. They were particularly gratified that, one should have asked me “Who has made the earth”, and was aware that God had made all things.

[29 February 1840]
Febr 29.
Had for the last three days occassionally a few Young men reading to me. Several having gone to the bush their number is small again.

[1 March 1840]
March 1st.
The attendance at Divine Service was not great on the part of the Blacks. Still the absence of some Young men was made up by several women attending.

[8 March 1840]
March 8th.
My eyes have got very bad again; for several days I could neither read nor write, and had to leave both Services of this Sabbath day to Mr Watson. Even the light of the sun hurts me. I stayed, therefore, at home & this afforded Mrs G. an opportunity to attend Church, from which she is so often prevented through her children, having no person to entrust them to, for a single hour.

[9 March 1840]
March 9.
My eyes are improving today, thank God, but I dare not read or write yet. The complaint has been very general here this summer.

[12 March 1840]
March 12.
Mrs G. and her youngest child having for some time been rather unwell, a change of air being very desirable for them; she set out to day

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on the journey accompanied by both Children & the Black Girl, to spend a few weeks with some friends at Frederic’s Valley [sic], about 60 miles from here. May the Lord conduct them safely & grant them his blessing?

[13 March 1840]
March 13.
Had 7 Young men & Boys reading to me to day. Their inequality in the knowledge of reading proves a great inconvenience. They want to be divided into 3 different classes; some times they will read together, when those that are advanced exercise patience. The worst is sometimes that one party will run away whilst I am teaching another.

[15 March 1840]
March 15.
My eyes having considerably improved I was able to officiate today a Church. We had a good number of Young men in the morning & a few in the afternoon.

[17 March 1840]
March 17.
Yesterday I had two & this day six Young men to read to me. They were reading part of Daniel, and felt much interested in the Story of Shadrach, Meshack & Abednego, asking various questions about it. I am sorry I can not get them to read, regularly, on account of the various employments for which they are wanted such as cutting slabs, seeking the horses, grinding, fetching wood & water. After they have done this work (which often can not be delayed, till they have had a reading lesson) they very rarely are inclined to read.

[21 March 1840]
March 21.
The last few days the Young men were reading to me, very regularly, from 4 to 7 of them.

[22 March 1840]
March 22.
A very scanty attendance at Church to day, both of Europeans & Blacks. Some of our Young men ran away, just before Church time; some person had told them that there was a strange Black female, about two miles from here, wandering about without a husband, so they expected one of them might obtain a wife. This is the great aim of several of them. They were disappointed in their expectation.
I was very much struck with an observation of Cochrane’s this evening, by which he proved to me his correct idea of what is a gentleman. A certain very respectable Proprietor of a neighbouring Estate has been in this quarter for the last week & Cochrane referring to him said: “Now that’s what I call a gentleman not such fellows as Mr - & Mr - etc naming certain rather giddy young men, professedly gentlemen.

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[28 March 1840]
March 28.
During this week our Young men again attended their Reading lessons, pretty regularly. I also went on with a Grammar of the Aboriginal language which I am endeavouring to compose.

[29 March 1840]
March 29.
We had a very small congregation to day scarcely any Europeans and not many Natives. Several of our Young men went away this morning in consequence of a message of an expected fight.

[30 March 1840]
March 30.
Only Ingel Jemmy, Cochrane & Bungary are left at the Mission, the rest of the Natives have gone to engage in a fight.

Second Quarter.

[1 April 1840]
April 1st.
Finished, at last, the principal, that is, the Etymological part of my Grammar, and have reason to believe, that I have arrived at some degree of correctness. It was not an easy task since the Etymology of this language contains great peculiarities, especially, the Verb, there being upwards of 20 Modifications of the same, besides its many i.e. 10 Tenses, through which the said Modifications may also be conjugated. These Modifications might be said to be a kind of Compound Verbs, formed by Post fixed , and, in their signification, mostly of an Aboriginal nature. Some however produce quite a new signification. As regards the Syntax, it is less capable to be brought under distinct rules, since, for instance, the order of words is very arbitrary, almost entirely dependent on the accent intended to be put on one word in preference to another. I must acknowledge, that, although I understand the Grammar tolerably well & have collected the principal words, I have not obtained much fluency in speech, nor can I follow the Natives when conversing among themselves. I have too little practise to overcome all the difficulties.

[3 April 1840]
April 3.
Besides teaching the few Youths that are remaining occassionally I am still pursuing the study of the language, and have endeavoured yesterday & to day to translate the Lord’s Prayer, into it; not without some difficulty, since, what we should call essential words, are lacking in this language. But some of my most intelligent young men approve of my translation, calling it correct & intelligible.

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[5 April 1840]
April 5th.
Went to a Neighbouring Establishment to hold Divine Service there, but had only six hearers.

[6 April 1840]
April 6.
Taught 3 Nat: youths to day, others have not returned from the bush. Began to translate the Apostolic Creed, but find it more difficult than the Lord’s Prayer.

[8 April 1840]
April 8.
We have been extremely uncomfortable, for a long time, for want of a domestic servant, as no one of the Natives can be depended upon. At the expense of other duties of greater importance, I must spend so much of my time in domestic work. We now have engaged an Old man as Cook & domestic servant who entered his service to day. He is at least steady and seems to be concerned about religion. He is of the Convict class but has, it seems enjoyed a Christian education at home, and appears to be of a respectable family.[61]

[11 April 1840]
April 11.
Teaching occassionally a few Young men, studying a little in the language, and writing several letters constituted my engagements for the last few days. Several Young men have returned from the bush.

[12 April 1840]
April 12.
I preached this morning from Mark XV, 14,15.[62] Mr Watson preached in the afternoon from the words: “Who went about doing good.” Acts X,38.[63] Mr W. has repeatedly used violent & bitter personalities in the Pulpit against myself & others, but this time he was carried to such a daring extreme that I think it becoming to insert a specimen of the language he made use of in my Journal. “Some,” thus he concluded his sermon, “go about and take their journies into the bush; not to do good; but to do evil; to injure their brethren: not to save souls, but to kill their brethren. Yes, they go from a Christian Mission, from this place.” The violence of his temper seemed to stop his speech & he appeared unable to proceed farther. That he intended me & my late journeys I should have guessed, had he been less explicit, as he has told an acquaintance of mine, only a few days ago, “Mr Gunther has only gone down the River to get up a story against me.” I dare say he has heard that I expressed my regret at the unfavourable impression made on the minds of the Blacks by his improper proceedings. Various observations of this violent sermon seemed to be intended for Mr Porter, to cut him down as well as me. Who can wonder at our dissatisfaction, and our determination to be separated from such a fellow labourer.

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[13 April 1840]
April 13.
Had a few Young men reading to me at different times.

[14 April 1840]
April 14.
Only one pupil to day. Commenced to translate the Ten Commandments.

[15 April 1840]
April 15.
Two Young men & a boy “read” to me.

[16 April 1840]
April 16.
Had purposed agreeably to a promise to go to Mudgee to day to officiate there & in the neighbour hood, during the coming Festivals, but was prevented by rain, a blessing of which we stood much in need as it has been very dry again for some time.

[17 April 1840]
April 17.
Our Good Friday Service was very little attended.

[19 April 1840]
April 19.
Mr W. preached in the morning & I in the afternoon; our congregation was both times rather small. Alas! what Good Fridays & Easter Days one must spend here, though surrounded by professors of the Christian name. No matter, whether Sunday or Festival, neither seems to attract people’s attention.

[20 April 1840]
April 20.
A little instruction given to some Young men & a little studying in the Nat: language, besides my domestic engagements constituted my day’s work.

[21 April 1840]
April 21.
Went early this morning to a neighbouring establishment, called Nannima, agreeably to an invitation of Mr Curtis,[64] a Medical Gentleman, who intended to perform the serious operation of amputating a leg of the Black boy, Nelson, and wished me to assist him. The poor Boy broke his leg about 10 days ago, by a fall from the horse, and the Doctor who has done his utmost for the sufferer being very fond of him, despairs of the parts being reunited, and for the safety of the Boy’s life, resolved on this remedy. However, as we apprehend it, so it came to pass, the Black friends of the Unfortunate boy objected to the operation, especially, his nearest Relation, known by the name of Dr Charley, being a professed Native Doctor. He proposed to set himself the leg, in the Native way, to which we at last yielded. His way was very simple, but in Mr Curtis’ opinion, not badly adapted to succeed, had it been done so in the first instance. He cut a piece of bark hollow off a small tree, just wide enough with a very little lining to enclose the leg. He also promised to wash it regularly every morning. P.S. Little as we expected it, this simple method succeeded, though slowly, after about 3 months the boy could walk again, halting very little.

People in WellPro Directory: Curtis, Dr. Samuel

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[23 April 1840]
April 23.
Went off to day together with Lively, one of our Young men, to fetch Mrs Gunther and her family from their visit. We travelled in a cart, the only conveyance had for the purpose. Stayed during the night at Narrowgal, 13 miles from home.

[24 April 1840]
April 24.
We proceeded as far as Molong to day, about 26 miles; I endeavoured to collect along the road some Nat: words & phrases from Lively.

[25 April 1840]
April 25.
Had a little conversation with an old Black this morning, respecting his soul, but he was very dull of comprehension. He looked a very pitiable object, being unwell. Lively I was pleased to see, evinced very tender feelings towards him & interceded for him, that I might give him a little of the tea & sugar we had taken for our journey; I acceded to the request. In our road to day we picked up some of the Native Manna, which in this quarter, under a kind of White gum tree, is falling profusely; at the present season, it has no peculiar, but an agreeably sweet taste. Towards evening, having travelled about 20 miles we reached Frederic’s Valley [sic], and I was thankful to find Mrs Gunther & the Children well, except that the little Boy was just recovering from an attack of a severe cold.

[26 April 1840]
April 26.
It being Sunday, I performed Divine Service at Mr Trappit’s and had a pretty good congregation from the men of the Establishment & the neighbourhood. In the evening again I had an assembly.

[27 April 1840]
April 27.
We visited to day a few Christian friends in this neighbourhood. This fertile district is principally settled by Wesleyans.

[28 April 1840]
April 28.
I baptised two Infants this morning, early, of Europeans parents & then we proceeded homeward, in our cart. Reached Molong rather late. I visited a Native camp here in the night, containing about a dozen Blacks, known & unknown to me. The Superintendent Mr Smith, treated us very hospitably.

[29 April 1840]
April 29.
Thank God we went on well again to day and reached Narrowgal late, where we were very kindly received.

People in WellPro Directory: Trappit, W.T.

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[30 April 1840]
April 30.
We finished our tedious journey to day & reached home in good time. I was thankful for the kind care & pres[?] we experienced. Travelling here is very different from what it is at home, especially, with such a conveyance as we had.

[1 May 1840]
May 1.
Having long been under an engagement to visit Mudgee, I started again to day on a journey, and proceeded about 25 miles, where I stayed at a European station, called Yumbi.

[2 May 1840]
May 2.
Saw a few Blacks to day, also a Young man of a distant tribe, whose dialect seems to differ much from the neighbouring ones. He stays with a Settler. Rather late I reached Mr Cox’s farm, two miles beyond the intended Township of Mudgee. I was kindly received by two Messes Coxes whose acquaintance I made for the first time (They only visit this their Estate or Estates at times.)

[3 May 1840]
May 3.
Performed Divine Service this morning at the house of Mr Cox, having a congregation of about 25 persons. I could see here the influence of a religious Master. Mr Cox when he is at the place which is only at certain seasons of the year always performs Divine Service himself, if other masters would do the same, a great change might be effected in this community. In the afternoon I rode off about 7 miles to Mr Lowe’s farm where I had Service in the evening with about 10 people.

[4 May 1840]
May 4.
Being detained in the morning by rain & afterwards through another circumstance, I only travelled about 12 miles, homeward, & stayed in the evening at Guntawang, where I had prayers & gave an address to about a dozen people.

[5 May 1840]
May 5.
Reached home towards evening; was sorry to find only two or three Native youths at the Mission, the rest having gone to the bush.

[9 May 1840]
May 9.
Several of the wandering Youths have returned from their excursion to the bush. Gave, as usual, at irregular times, reading lessons to a few Young men during the last days.

[10 May 1840]
May 10.
Had a small congregation this morning, rather better in the afternoon Mr W. being absent I officiated both times.

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[16 May 1840]
May 16.
After a long continuance of dry weather, we had at last, the beginning of this week, some rain, and have availed ourselves of it, for the last few days by gardening, at which employment I had usually from two to four Young men assisting me. Unless I am with them, they will not do much. Instructed them also at various times in reading.

[17 May 1840]
May 17.
We had rather a better congregation to day than usual though nothing like what it might be. Mr W. officiated in the forenoon & I in the afternoon.

[18 May 1840]
May 18.
Mr Porter went a journey to day; consequently I had to take charge of the Horses.

[19 May 1840]
May 19.
Except two, who are fetching wood & water, and driving the bullocks at ploughing, all our Young men were led away yesterday & to day by the Elderly Natives to go a hunting, so I had to do the work in the garden myself; it having the appearance of more rain I was anxious to get in some seeds.

[21 May 1840]
May 21.
There are a considerable number of Natives about at present; but this, I am sorry to say, is always an unfavourable circumstance for our Young men, as they are commonly made very unsteady by their Old rulers. This evening they had a great corrobberry.

[22 May 1840]
May 22.
Several of the Young men went again a hunting to day.

[23 May 1840]
May 23.
Was much employed at the Horses to day, and looking after the necessary work to be done by Whites & Blacks. A very inconvenient thing on Saturday. Some Young men read to me. Mr Porter returned late in the evening.

[30 May 1840]
May 30.
Besides occassionally, instructing a few Young men & employment in domestic work, I devoted my time for the last week principally, to the study of the Nat: languages, especially, comparing Mr Threlkeld’s Grammar & dialect

People in WellPro Directory: Threlkeld, Reverend L.E.

Journal 8: 1840, p.27.
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with our dialect & my own Grammar. The difference, particularly in words is great, still the general features of Grammar bear much resemblance to each other. It is a pity Mr T. has not arranged his Grammar into a more simple & clearer system.

[31 June 1840]
June 31.
I have ommitted [sic] writing any particulars in my Journal during the last month, as so little worth relating transpired and as daily occurrences & engagements have so much sameness. A few general observations will describe the whole. The Young men very irregularly attended to their Reading lessons, partly because through the influence of their superiors, the Old men, they wandered much about, partly because when with us, their time was chiefly taken up in the general work, at present rather extensive, such as assisting in ploughing, attending cattle, fetching wood & water cutting bark & slabs, assisting in building etc. Sometimes I had only one or two, sometimes four, & six to instruct. I also pursued the study of the language and wrote a long, laborious kind of letter to the German Lutheran Missionaries of South Australia, who have written to me, though personally unacquainted with them, desiring me to give them some information, concerning our Mission and the Aborigines of this part; and particularly, concerning the general character etc of our Aboriginal dialect, offering to do the same for me. They seem, in a short time, to have advanced considerably in the acquirement of the Aboriginal language.

Third Quarter

[11 July 1840]
July 11.
I was enabled to teach the Young men, more regularly, during the last 8 or 10 days since they were kept at home by the rain. We have had more continued rain of late than I have seen before in this

People in WellPro Directory: Threlkeld, Reverend L.E.

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country a circumstance which we hail with delight & gratitude, as it brightens, in one point of view, our prospects; which have become so gloomy during the dry season. I hope the Lord is returning to us with his favour and will grant unto us a good harvest, so desirable for the maintenance of the Mission Establishment, as our opportunities of usefulness depend so much on temporary support.

[18 July 1840]
July 18.
The number of our Young men being very small, at present, and always a good deal of work for them do, there is little opportunity to instruct them, nor could I ever* get much assistance in gardening, except now & then from Bungary. The fetching of wood & water employs two almost constantly; the latter being so far to be fetched. There has been no sufficiency of rain to fill any of the empty water holes of the Bell river; we may go for miles to see a water hole containing water.

[19 July 1840]
July 19.
I officiated both times, had a small congregation. It is distressing to observe the indifference to religious ordinances & the profanation of the Sabbath which prevail among Europeans in this district, both gentle & simple.

[20 July 1840]
July 20.
Mr Porter left to day for Sydney, as he is determined to see the Corg. Comte. respecting our present pecuniary difficulties since all Orders drawn seem to be refused. This is like putting a stop to our Establishment at once. I sincerely hope, money matters will not prove an insurmountable obstacle to our work. I observe, in the latest Public papers from Sydney, what great efforts & what large collections of money, the London Auxiliary Missry. Society are making there. May not our Friends in Sydney do something similar, or must the Church be put to shame by other denominations? I doubt not with zealous advocacy of the C.M.S. house, more support might be obtained in this Country.

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[22 July 1840]
July 22.
The old European Servant whom we engaged last April as Cook etc left us to day. I have for some time again & again told him to leave but could hardly get rid of him. He was of very little use and I had too much reason to doubt the sincerity of his religious profession. I would give the utmost I could possibly afford, to obtain an industrious & honest servant, as Mrs G. is so very uncomfortable, and I so often obliged to spend my time in domestic employments. I have engaged Bungary, one of our Native youths to be our Cook. If he were by himself he might, perhaps, do tollerably [sic] well, but where there are a number of them, they always lead each other astray etc.

[24 July 1840]
July 24.
We were much pleased with Bungary to day giving us a specimen of his own composing in English containing a few thoughts of a religious nature. It was very legibly written & intelligibly expressed.

[25 July 1840]
July 25.
In consequence of Mr Porter’s absence, I had this week to attend to the Horses & such like. Occassionally, 2 or 3 youths were reading to me. Cochrane & George behave best, at present, both as regards instruction & work. The former reads pretty fluently & often instructs the latter, he being much behind, having been so long absent from the Mission. He was for a year engaged by a neighbouring Settler. We were rejoiced, this evening, to receive several letters from England & Germany. Excluded as we are from almost all society, especially, Christian society, letters from our Friends are quite a treat.

[26 July 1840]
July 26.
Mr Watson wrote me rather an abrupt note yesterday afternoon informing me of his intention to baptise a Half caste child, to day (about 3 years old.), in reply to which I gave him to understand, as on a previous occassion, that his proceedings involve a question, which ought to be referred to the Bishop & the Cong. Comtee. However, as I expected, he persisted in his purpose and preached this morning previously to the Ceremony, a sermon which may be denominated a Vindication of the same. This text was Mark. 10: 16: “Suffer the little etc.” [65] He endeavoured

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I, to prove the lawfulness of Infant Baptism. (Did this tolerably well). II, The lawfulness of Baptising Halfcaste children. The arguments of the latter were* viciously* managed & contradictory. In the afternoon neither Mr & Mrs Watson came to Church, nor were the Nat: children sent. I could not account for it, as I could not imagine that our difference of opinion respecting what he did in the morning, could have given offence or afford a pretext for absence from Church. I also observed in the evening some strange wisperings [sic] & curious looks among several of the Natives.

[27 July 1840]
July 27.
I was not left long in the dark about yesterday’s occurrences. Mr W. sent me a very ill-tempered note respecting his Connexion with the C.M.S. being dissolved “through my repeated representations etc.” Just a little before I saw the Note, one of the Young men, Jemmy Buckley behaved, to my surprise very impudently to me, with out my giving the least occassion. I guessed Mr W. must have put something in his mind. I am sorry, I was not directly informed of the Decision, by the Cong. Comtee. Whatever Mr W. may say against me, I can never, for a moment, regret the steps I have taken, no, not on the closest & most serious examination of all that has past. A separation was a matter of necessity & it is high time it should take place. May the Lord be pleased to overrule all for good, and, to grant to the Mission that thing which always has been lacking, & without which it can never prosper - union!

[28 July 1840]
July 28.
Cochrane & George made some inquiries this evening respecting the Roman Catholics, occassioned by a Priest of that body being at present in this neighbourhood. When I told him, among other errors, that the R. Catholic’s did invoke Saints, such as the Virgin Mary, George was struck & said: “Mary can not give grace, she can’t give the Holy Spirit; how foolish they are!”

[2 August 1840]
August 2.
We spent a Sabbath day which I fear will bring any thing but credit on the Good cause. It was to me a day of grief. Mr Watson adhered to his resolution,

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to keep away with the Native children from Church & to have Service at his new residence. The Young men thought it strange & Cochrane observed respecting it “This is nonsense, I don’t like this.” Some were at a loss whether to hear Mr W. or myself. Thus our congregation, small at the best, is split in pieces, and the public must needs have a demonstration not of what characterises the disciples of Christ, but of the Spirit of the world that has disarranged this Mission.

[3 August 1840]
August 3.
Most of the Young men were determined to go away this morning; it was with difficulty I could detain George whom we want so much at home, to drive the bullocks, at ploughing etc. They are gone to revenge themselves for an injury inflicted on one of their number - Lively, by another tribe. I made every effort to dissuade them but in vain. It is not so much a feeling of revenge that prompts them, but rather pride & ambition; they suppose, they should be looked upon as cowards should they fail, to retaliate. Nothing short of a thorough change of heart, will enable them to leave off these heathen practises. They admit the wrong of it, but have no power to overcome their natural propensities.

[8 August 1840]
August 8.
Gave George & Bungary occassionally Reading lessons this week, and was doing a little in the Native language. Of late I made several attempts to translate into it. Finished the Ten Commandments & the 1st of Genesis & commenced the 2nd. It is not an easy task, on account of the poverty of the language, though I think the Historical parts of Scripture might be translated; to translate the Doctrinal parts seems impracticable.
Mr Porter returned from Sydney this evening, so I shall be relieved from my attendance to the Horses.

[9 August 1840]
August 9.
Had again a small congregation as Mr W. persists in his separation. In the evening our Young men came back from the bush. It seems they have had a fight, and as far as I can ascertain wounded one of their opponents.

[15 August 1840]
August 15.
I am utterly dismayed to keep a Diary at present; I should have, principally, to write about our present disturbances. I am grieved to say, Mr W. acts, as I long apprehended,

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he would, under such circumstances. - I receive daily proofs, that he does all he can, to prejudice the poor Natives against us. The Spirit he evinces can only confirm me, if such was needed, in my unfortunate opinion of him, which I have, at least to some extent, long intimated to the Society. I have long doubted his sincerity.

[16 August 1840]
August 16.
Very few attendants at Church this morning. The few Europeans that used to attend seem to be disgusted, at our affairs. In the afternoon I had no Service but we instructed a few Young men.

[22 August 1840]
August 22.
What I observed on the 15th inst. I might justly repeat to day. Alas! when & where will the confusion end! Besides a little teaching I attended to the Aboriginal language. Composed an address in it, of several pages, comprising a brief outline of the Creation, the Fall of man, and Redemption, intermixed with exhortations. I read it to our Young men who approved with the exception of a few expressions of its correctness.

[23 August 1840]
August 23.
No change for the better in the attendance at Church. A circumstance occurred this evening late which grieved & disgusted me. A half past 10 o’clock one of our dogs began to bark, vehemently, & continued for some time. Our Black girl, who was just about to retire, opened the door and called out, “There must be some person outside, Who is there?” Often I have had reason to suspect certain persons, watching about the House, sometimes left it unnoticed, sometimes I looked about; this time I was determined to search closely. I rushed out & in a few moments, not many yards off behind a little building, and under a bust I hit on a Native wrapt up in an oppossum cloak, and recognised him to be Ingel Jemmy, the Young man, who has been staying with us for a long time, but of late seduced away by Mr Watson, to live entirely with him. I expected him before to be a spy. He was at a loss to frame an excuse, or, to give an account of his intentions. I reproved him, gently, as I do pity him to be thus led astray by a professed Christian Missionary. I am reluctant to say what I might say on this head, I must only intimate, that this poor Heathen youth, by the mean & contemptible action of this evening, has done no more than

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what the example & devices of him, who has long been the Disturber of harmony in the Mission, have sanctioned, Whatever his object may have been, whether to take away our Black Girl, or, merely, to watch all our private moments, it is grievous.

[24 August 1840]
August 24.
It came out this morning that the Young man last night had an accomplice; Fred was also on the watch, (He has for a considerable time given proof of his deceitfulness & hypocrisy) but he ran off, as fast as he could, when he heard that I had caught Jemmy. The rest of our Young men expressed their disgust at such ways; and were highly amused at the discovery of them.
I set out to day on a, long intended, journey, on horseback, Bungary accompanying me on foot. Rather late in the evening we reached Wallandurai; as we left home only at noon, and, to oblige Bungary, I had sometimes to walk myself.

[25 August 1840]
August 25.
There were no Blacks at this Station; but I understood about 3 miles off a considerable number had encamped. Several, however, made their appearance, before we started to visit the Camp. Mr Williams, the Superintendent of the Station accompanied us. As we were delayed getting the horses, we reached the Camp almost too late, the Natives having partly dispersed. We found a number near a European Station, not far from last night’s Encampment. I talked to them and read part of an address, which I had composed in their language. They said, they understood me & some were attentive; but their patience was soon exhausted. At the Camp, farther on, I saw several little companies of men, & had some conversation with them, but they were mostly about to move, “to look out” food. Several were strangers to me, being of a different tribe. When returning to the Station where I just had been addressing some, we observed an increase in the number but were not a little surprised to see several Children & Young women run away from us, into the bushes & upon trees. I rode up to one tree, which two Girls had made their refuge, but could not induce them to come down to speak to me. I was truly distressed, that the unfavourable impression, which so unfortunately has been made by Mr W. should be so deeply rooted, lasting and extensive. How discouraging & disheartening! How deplorable.

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After dinner I left Wallandurai, and made for the Macquarie, Bungary followed me. After sunset I came in sight of the Station Gumbugulgambang, where I met a considerable number of Natives, mostly of our Wellington tribes, who were glad to see me. After I had taken tea at the Station I visited the Camp again & conversed with several, but the principal thing they cared for was tobacco. Had evening prayers with three Europeans.

[26 August 1840]
August 26.
The rain was pouring down last night, and came into the room I slept in (of course as usual in this quarter it was only a bark hut, the ground serving for the floor.) The rain continuing all the forenoon, I was detained; but had always Blacks about me to talk to. In the afternoon I proceeded, and, just reached Dundallimal Station 3 miles before another heavy shower came on. There were a number of Natives here. According to my plan I proceeded about 6 miles farther. Riding was getting very heavy, my horse often went down to the knee the ground being so soft in consequence of the rain. I just reached the European Station, when it was getting very dark, sometime after sunset, and was hospitably accommodated. This is the only Station beyond Wellington, where there is a Lady; indeed very rarely a common European female is seen in this quarter.

[27 August 1840]
August 27.
No Natives here at present. Hastened on to the last Station designed in my plan, Nguramiddang[?] (or as Europeans have corrupted the name: Euromeda) which I reached early in the afternoon. Was kindly received by the Superintendent, Mr Thurlow*. There were only 2 Natives at the place; one had been detained by a very bad leg; having met with a serious accident. I had a little conversation with him. In the evening the few White men were assembled for prayers; I gave them an address.

[28 August 1840]
August 28.
Early this morning I saw a Young Aboriginal with whom I had some conversation (I had never seen him before.) As often is the case with them, he first would deny his being possessed of a soul; but an inward consciousness of the truth soon made him admit his having a soul & its immortality. After Evening Prayers I returned on my journey, travelling back for about 22 miles & only seeing 2 White men & no Black. At Dundallimal I found a good number of Aborigines and was told, that a great number besides was not

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far off a fight being expected to take place tomorrow. I took my night quarters at Dubbo, only a mile from Dandallimal, on the right hand side of the Macquarie.

[29 August 1840]
August 29.
It being Saturday I was anxious to get home to day but, unfortunately, my horse had gone astray, homeward, during the night though he was in hobbles. I had much difficulty, to get a Black to trace him & to fetch him back, as they all were in anxious expectation either to participate in the fight, or, to be, at least, spectators of the same. One went at last, but soon came back, saying, he could not find him. I resolved, therefore, to stay and considered it rather, Providential, as I might, perhaps, be able to prevent the fight. Two Gentlemen besides myself endeavoured this morning to dissuade the [?] but it seemed to be of no avail, and one impudently replied to me: “Parson yambulyarra[?].” The parson speaks falsehood. I pursued them during the whole of the day in all their movements & spoke repeatedly to both parties to disuade [sic] them. When the evening was drawing near & there seemed to be no likelihood of a fight I turned a little way back toward my night quarters, met then two Gentlemen one of whom a Magistrate of the Wellington district shooting ducks along the River I delayed a little with them and ere long we heard a rushing noise, followed by the sight of a lot of Blacks just crossing the River to commence the fight. We hastily pursued them and arrived with them at the appointed place. The opposite party rushed up too, and vehement language & great noise ensued on both sides. I tried by all means to prevent serious consequences & Mr Curtis the Magistrate alluded to told them if they did commit any injury he should be obliged to apprehend them. A few Wammaras (properly bargan, the half moon like instrument) were thrown, but many these were among the Blacks themselves that turned mediators, and, to my great delight soon put an end to it. It is curious, how often they threaten to fight, and rarely it becomes serious. The number of men present, excepting women & children, amounted to about 80.

[30 August 1840]
August 30.
Had Divine Service at Dandallimal this morning. My congregation consisted of about 8 or 9 White men & two Black. In the afternoon I went to Gumbugulgumbang with Mr Sheridan, the Superintendent of that Station, who has promised to lend me a horse tomorrow to take me home. However, towards evening a Gentleman coming down the

People in WellPro Directory: Curtis, Dr. Samuel | Sheridan, B. | Thurlow, Mr

Journal 8: 1840, p.35.
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far off a fight being expected to take place tomorrow. I took my night quarters at Dubbo, only a mile from Dandallimal, on the right hand side of the Macquarie.

[29 August 1840]
August 29.
It being Saturday I was anxious to get home to day but, unfortunately, my horse had gone astray, homeward, during the night though he was in hobbles. I had much difficulty, to get a Black to trace him & to fetch him back, as they all were in anxious expectation either to participate in the fight, or, to be, at least, spectators of the same. One went at last, but soon came back, saying, he could not find him. I resolved, therefore, to stay and considered it rather, Providential, as I might, perhaps, be able to prevent the fight. Two Gentlemen besides myself endeavoured this morning to dissuade the [?] but it seemed to be of no avail, and one impudently replied to me: “Parson yambulyarra[?].” The parson speaks falsehood. I pursued them during the whole of the day in all their movements & spoke repeatedly to both parties to disuade [sic] them. When the evening was drawing near & there seemed to be no likelihood of a fight I turned a little way back toward my night quarters, met then two Gentlemen one of whom a Magistrate of the Wellington district shooting ducks along the River I delayed a little with them and ere long we heard a rushing noise, followed by the sight of a lot of Blacks just crossing the River to commence the fight. We hastily pursued them and arrived with them at the appointed place. The opposite party rushed up too, and vehement language & great noise ensued on both sides. I tried by all means to prevent serious consequences & Mr Curtis the Magistrate alluded to told them if they did commit any injury he should be obliged to apprehend them. A few Wammaras (properly bargan, the half moon like instrument) were thrown, but many these were among the Blacks themselves that turned mediators, and, to my great delight soon put an end to it. It is curious, how often they threaten to fight, and rarely it becomes serious. The number of men present, excepting women & children, amounted to about 80.

[30 August 1840]
August 30.
Had Divine Service at Dandallimal this morning. My congregation consisted of about 8 or 9 White men & two Black. In the afternoon I went to Gumbugulgumbang with Mr Sheridan, the Superintendent of that Station, who has promised to lend me a horse tomorrow to take me home. However, towards evening a Gentleman coming down the

People in WellPro Directory: Curtis, Dr. Samuel | Sheridan, B. | Thurlow, Mr

Journal 8: 1840, p.36.
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Wellington road brought my own horse, having found him put in a stockyard about 10 miles off towards home. There was a great host of Blacks, no less than about 180 encamped, near this Station, near the spot where they had the fight yesterday, both parties sitting down now in amity together. I conversed with many of them reading also part of an address to some, however, though they said they understood it, they paid not much attention, a few wished me to read, others wanted to prevent it, & laughed at my endeavours. After Evening prayers with a few Europeans, I went again to the Camp and found the Aborigines engaged in a very wild dance. The distant tribes performed & the rest were spectators laughing at & admiring the fun; for it was rather a theatrical performance, the male actors were principally mimicking the Black females in their various habits & movements. I felt rather discouraged at the conduct of these thoughtless, careless and hardened creatures. Nothing seems to attract or animate them but play & nonsense. Oh! when will a day of mercy break in upon them.

[31 August 1840]
August 31.
I was detained this morning for some time, by a serious accident that happened to the Superintendent. In handling a pistol loaded with a ball he shot himself through the hand. It was, however, a mercy it did no more serious injury; two Young men, Blacks, stood quite close to him & I was a few yards off. I sent for some Gentlemen in the neighbourhood to see what could be done, but we all agreed that he should proceed to Wellington to get the attention of a Medical man, one of them offered to accompany him whilst I was hastening on before to acquaint the Medical gentleman with his coming. I reached home safely about two hours before dark.

[4 September 1840]
Septbr 4th.
This evening, at twilight the whole settlement of the Mission & Police was in a state of disturbance: two of Mr Watson’s grown up Native girls effected their escape. The Police Magistrate,[66] Mr W’s great defender dispatched Constables after them, one of them came before our door with a gun. Four of our young men whom Mr W. of late has decoyed away from us were running

People in WellPro Directory: Barrow, William Warre

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& crying after them in all directions. The greatest fear was entertained that these poor Girls - Jane & Maria - might seek for refuge with us. Hence the said Young men, supposing they must be within the reach of hearing, called out to them in their own language, by no means to go to Mr Gunther’s whatever they might do. Two of them were set to watch round our House the whole night.

[5 September 1840]
Septbr 5.
Nothing was heard, or, seen of the Girls, last night but great suspicion was entertained by Mr W. that they must be with me, accordingly his great Friend, the Police Magistrate, sent a message to me, early this morning, threatening me with a “Search Warrant”, if I did not surrender the Girls, should they be with me. Afterwards he must have felt rather uncomfortable, at the insult he had offered me, and at Mrs G’s & my cool, fearless reply, he sent twice an apology but of a very contradictory nature. The Young men of Mr W’s. party were in search of the Girls greater part of the day, and succeeded, late in the night, to catch the Younger one, Maria, whom they escorted back to Mr Watson’s.

[6 September 1840]
Septbr 6.
In the latter part of the night about 3 o’clock, when we were fortunately awake, the other Girl, Jane, came knocking at our doors, whilst it was pouring down with rain. Through the thick darkness of the night she escaped the Watchmen’s eyes that were again about our House. The other Girl had likewise intended to come to us, had she escaped those Young men. I thought it my bounden duty to receive Jane & to protect her.

[7 September 1840]
Septbr 7.
No doubt measures would have been taken to day (yesterday it was Sunday and it became only known towards evening that she was with us) to compel me to deliver up Jane, had not the Police & Magistrate received a strong lecture from a Brother Magistrate, on account of his unlawful interference, which I understand frightened him much. However another plan was devised, to accomplish the end: Jemmy Buckley, who lays (with some justification) claim to Jane, &, who long was dissatisfied with Mr W. for withholding her, but, of late, gained over by promises etc on the part of Mr W. made an effort to take her away by force. Watching her movements about the house & finding the front door open he seized her in the passage, and assisted by another, they were pulling away, whilst the Girl was dreadfully screaming,

People in WellPro Directory: Barrow, William Warre

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and so was Mrs Gunther the only person to assist her, till I hearing it in the Garden came to her assistance & one of our men, who, however, fearing the Blacks, would not exert himself to the utmost. The two Blacks were pulling in a most savage manner; and the Girl continued her screams dreading to be dragged away to Mr Watson’s. But it was not till at last Mr Porter heard & came to assist thus we were able to rescue her. After some quiet reasoning with Jemmy he submitted & promised not to attempt again a similar attack. We reminded him that it was long our wish as he well knew he should have Jane for his wife & he should have her in due time but we would not let her go back to Mr Watson’s, by whom he has been weak enough to be once more cheated. But alas! how distressing are such outrages by which the whole settlement is set in an uproar! This was an open breach of peace, but here where if would have been the daily duty of the Police Magistrate to interfere, no steps were taken to prevent it.

[25 September 1840]
Septbr 25.
We have been aware that not only some of Mr Watson’s young men but even he himself had frequently been watching about the Mission House in the night to seize Jane, should they get an opportunity. At last, they have succeeded. The Girl seems to have gone out rather early in the morning & when we got up, she could not be found; we soon heard that some of the Young men had watched her & dragged her down to Mr W. Alas! Alas! Where & when will this melancholy scene end? What missionary work is this! How distressing to behold such treacherous & deceitful dealing in a professed Christian Missionary. It requires indeed more than ordinary patience to keep composed amidst such goings on. We feel it our bounded duty to urge the Cong. Committee in Sydney to have recourse to decisive measures[?] and to cause Mr W. to be expelled from here else we shall not get rid of him and so long as he is here, there will be no peace or order. Real missionary work & instruction are quite at a stop under these confusions & constant excitement & dissension[?] even among the Aborigines themselves. Nor can I go away from here comfortably & travel and leave Mrs Gunther alone under such constant & almost daily outrages which I am weary to report all and on that account have almost given up to keep a Diary. We know that they are planning to snatch Noamilly[?] (Eliza) who has been long with us away also so that Mrs G. should be without the least assistance. She has no desire to leave us.

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Fourth Quarter

[17 October 1840]
October 17.
We were a little comforted to day by a letter from the Revd Wm. Cowper intimating that measures were in contemplation, to put an end to our confused state, and to restore order & peace.

[27 October 1840]
Octbr 27.
We learned to day that the Police Magistrate had received Instructions from the Governor, to expel Mr Watson from his Residence etc etc. We also observed the latter making preparations for a removal. [67]

[28 October 1840]
Octbr 28.
I passed to day near Mr Watson’s Residence and was awfully shocked & grieved to behold the devastation Mr W. has made around it, fencing pulled down & destroyed almost every improvement, such as garden fences etc, though put up, mostly, on the Society’s expense. It is, truly, melancholy to see that a man of his profession should give way to such malicious tempers.

[29 October 1840]
Octbr 29.
Having understood that Mr Watson was determined to take away the Aborigines under his charge though ordered to deliver them up to me, I felt it my duty to apply to the Police Magistrate reminding him of his Orders from the Governor as I feared he would not act up to them. But he delayed giving me a direct answer, only an apology.

[30 October 1840]
Octbr 30.
It was not till this evening that I received an Official reply from the Mr Barrow, to my application of yesterday, informing me that Mr Watson had “declined giving up the Aborigines to me."[68] He might have added something more; for soon after receiving his reply, I was informed that Mr Watson had last night taken away the Aboriginal children & women, consequently immediately after my application.

[31 October 1840]
Octbr 31.
Having been informed by the Pol: Magistrate, that Mr Watson had appealed in a Letter to the Governor and apprehending, what kind of production it would be; I applied to the Pol: Magistrate for a Copy of the same which I soon received. We were astonished & shoked [sic] beyond measure; to see its contents. For, however, unfavourable our opinion of Mr Watson long has been this surpasses all we ever could have apprehended. I did not altogether

People in WellPro Directory: Barrow, William Warre | Cowper, Reverend William

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think him capable of such an accumulation of malicious representations & direct falsehoods.

[1 November 1840]
Novbr 1.
Jemmy Buckley & Jane came to day to live with us; they made first their appearance at Church. Having no longer been able to resist Mr Watson allowed them about 3 weeks since to live together as husband & wife and in the night when Mr W. took the Children away, they parted with him.

[2 November 1840]
Novbr 2.
Sent a large despatch of Letters & copies etc to the Cong. Committee to inform them of last week’s occurrences.

[5 November 1840]
Novbr 5.
Finished to day rather a lengthy “Comment” on Mr W’s. Letter to the Governor.

[7 November 1840]
Novbr 7.
It has been rumoured for some time that His Excellency the Governor was coming to visit this District. To day distinct information was received of his coming within less than 24 hours.[69]

[8 November 1840]
Novbr 8.
To day we were honoured with His Excellency’s arrival in our Valley he first gave us a call at the Mission House and it being just the time of our Evening Service I ordered according to His Excellency’s wish the Bell to be wrung; but there was rather a small congregation: about 10 Aborigines besides a few Europeans.

[9 November 1840]
Novbr 9.
The Governor & Lady Gipps called on us towards evening; the former having some private conversation with me respecting our late differences etc. I also handed over to him my “Comment” on Mr Watson’s Letter.

[10 November 1840]
Novbr 10.
According to appointment I went to see His Excellency about 2 miles from here when I was honoured with a long audience. We took notes of various statements & of my views respecting the future. Towards evening passing from Mr Raymond’s place & proceeding to the Mr Montefiore’s His Excellency called again, principally conversing with Mr Porter. We went into the Paddock to see the Natives making hay.

[11 November 1840]
Novbr 11.
In compliance with the Governor’s requests, I wrote down some of my principal grievances against Mr Watson & Mr Barrow, the Police Magistrate and forwarded them to His Excellency.

People in WellPro Directory: Barrow, William Warre

Journal 8: 1840, p.41.
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[12 November 1840]
Novbr 12.
At day break His Excellency passed by on his return to Sydney. I trust under the Divine direction his visit will be attended with good results to the Mission. I am sorry to say Jemmy Buckley & Jane have left us again yesterday, he being engaged in the neighbourhood working sheep wanted to have her near him at the Native Camp; through all the painful occurrences their minds have become quite unsettled and independent.

[17 November 1840]
Novbr 17.
I found out Old Fred last night watching near our House, no doubt, with the intent to take our Black Girl away; he has long been anxious to have her, but I think him a very improper person to be her husband as he is full of deceit & hypocrisy & she has no affection for him.

[19 November 1840]
Novbr 19.
Set out on a journey this morning in order to see some friends & to perform an old promise of holding Divine Service at Molong next Sunday. Stayed at Labrygea[?] with a very respectable family where I was kindly received. Was agreeably surprised at the prolific growth of every kind of vegetable & at the plain though the soil seems very inferior but it is favoured with frequent showers. Distributed some tracts on the road through the bush.

[20 November 1840]
Novbr 20.
Arrived early in the day at Mr Trappit’s, Frederic’s Valley [sic] where I received a hearty welcome. Was glad to hear of the capture of almost all the bushrangers that have for some months past infested this District; indeed from Bathurst up to Wellington they have been very troublesome & committed many outrages, murders & robberies. Not far from Wellington they robbed some time ago the Mail.

[21 November 1840]
Novbr 21.
Returned another road i.e. the Main Road from Bathurst to Wellington, & reached easily in the afternoon Molong; the Estate of the Marsden’s Family, Mr Betts with his Family being just up. I was not a little surprised to find also Mr Bobash here with his Family having just arrived about an hour before me, and was very glad to see him.

[22 November 1840]
Novbr 22.
Mr Bobash feeling very tired from his long journey and not very well left the Service to me. I had, what we call in the bush, a very good congregation viz: upwards of 30 persons. Mr Bobash was teaching in the afternoon 2 New Zealanders who are with Mr Betts. I was gratified with them & still more with the accounts from New Zealand Mr Betts having lately visited there.

[23 November 1840]
Novbr 23.
On account of frequent showers I could not reach home as I intended but only Narrowgal where my little daughter stays at present with a pious couple. Reached home safely on the following morning.

People in WellPro Directory: Betts, John | Marsden, Reverend Samuel | Trappit, W.T.

Journal 8: 1840, p.42.
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[28 November 1840]
Novbr 28.
Paddy Possum who never has given much encouragement has for the last few days, to my surprise, been very anxious to be instructed. The Young men are at present engaged in reaping & have little leisure for instruction but he manages to find an hour or two every day.

[29 November 1840]
Novbr 29.
Had as usual of late, a very small congregation. This is the melancholy effect of all the disgraceful occassions & unhappy differences on the Mission. The Establishment which in this moral wilderness ought to have proved a “City upon a Hill” has tended rather to bring scorn & scandal upon religion. Both Whites & Blacks have of late grown more indifferent than ever I knew them to be, and the half & half measures which have been taken with respect to certain parties. I have reason to fear, can only tend to make things worse.

[1 December 1840]
Decbr 1st.
I had a long conversation this evening with some of our Young men, and gave them an outline, in as plain language as I could, of the Scripture history. They listened with attention & interest, especially Cochrane.

[7 December 1840]
Decbr 7.
I was informed this evening that Harry, one of the Aboriginal youths that has frequently been at the Mission but long suffered from consumption was scarcely expected to live over the night, I hastened to see him at the Camp near Nannima, 2 miles from here & on the road received a letter from Dr Curtis desiring me to visit the poor Sufferer, who he supposed had some desire for spiritual comfort. It so affected me that I could not refrain from tears, imploring the Divine mercy in his behalf. The medical Gentleman informed me that he himself had been so affected at the Camp when speaking to him not long before I came so that he could not refrain from tears, when the Poor Black called out “Don’t cry doctor; perhaps we shall see each other again in the glory of God.” I conversed and prayed with him at the Camp in the presence of several of his Aboriginal friends & his Father, but regret I did not find him so well prepared for comfort as I expected. He would not admit that he had done any or much wrong. The poor Fellow has never cared much about instruction and during his illness he came repeatedly here but his Friends, would not let him continue with us. They always prefer having

People in WellPro Directory: Curtis, Dr. Samuel

Journal 8: 1840, p.43.
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MS page no: 3-218


[page] 43
their sick at the Camp. To be near the Camp I stayed at Nannima during the night.

[8 December 1840]
Decbr 8.
Poor Harry survived the night & seemed a little better this morning. After a little conversation with him returned home. In the evening I went again to see him, but could not talk much to him since he soon fell asleep. Conversed with several other Natives at the Camp; but, alas! they are a careless[?] set of beings.

[9 December 1840]
Decbr 9.
Paid another visit this morning to Harry.

[10 December 1840]
Decbr 10.
Went again to see Harry this afternoon. Was rather better pleased with him than before. He expressed with a sigh his regret for having not better improved the opportunities he often had at the Mission of being instructed. When I prayed he seemed to be very attentive though I fancied he was half asleep for when I finished he pronounced a hasty “Amen” and when I then added the Lord’s Prayer, he said as well as he could every word after me & concluded with a loud “Amen.”
I should have baptised the poor Heathen if I could have observed a little more knowledge, & repentance; but I can not satisfy my conscience that he is a fit subject as yet. May the Lord have mercy upon him!

[11 December 1840]
Decbr 11.
I set out on a journey this morning to Mudgee. Having to pass Nannima I called at the Camp to see Harry and was surprised to see him apparently much better so much so that his Father thought he was getting better again. I was quite struck & pleased with the remark that Old man made saying in his broken English to me: “That you pray yesterday, that make him jump up again.” I then proceeded on my journey, met a Black Shepherd after about 20 miles ride through the bush with whom I had a little conversation; he is more steady than most of the Blacks; I have repeatedly seen him on this road. A little farther on I saw another at the farm where I called but he was so shy that I could not get him to speak to me. Stayed at Guntawang where I found a few Blacks.

[12 December 1840]
Decbr 12.
Towards evening I reached the Township of Mudgee. Near the Public House I saw several Blacks

Journal 8: 1840, p.44.
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[page] 44

one was quite drunk; another one told me, he was a Brother of Cochrane & was glad to hear of him. I had a little conversation with them. Proceeded 2 miles farther to a Mr Cox’s Establishment where I was very kindly received. I was sorry to hear to day by a Gentleman the melancholy report concerning the accidental death of the Revd R. Taylor’s eldest Son in New Zealand confirmed.

[13 December 1840]
Decbr 13.
Had a pretty good congregation this morning, upwards of 20 hearers. On my road from here back to Mudgee, I saw a camp of Blacks & conversed a little with some of them, about religion, when a Woman wanted to deny that she had a soul. Seeing some White men engaged in erecting some building, I though it my duty to go to them & give them a little reproof, about profaning the Lord’s day. One man endeavoured to excuse himself by saying; they were living in the bush “and we have no Parson to preach to us.” I replied “Well I will preach to you this evening, if you like.” He was struck & at a loss what to say. I was glad to see the Church & Parsonage almost completed. At Mr Lawson’s Estate I could not get a congregation, as almost every man was off to the Public House. It is a sad thing; wherever there is a public house in this country, how almost every man runs after it. I do not think there is a Country in the world where drunkenness prevails so much as in New South Wales.

[14 December 1840]
Decbr 14.
We had much rain this morning so that I was delayed till afternoon. On my road I called at a Shepherd’s hut where a Scotch woman was hutkeeping, as they call it; she, thankfully accepted some tracts from me. Took up my quarters for the night at Mr Rouse’s Guntawang where I had Evening Prayers with a small congregation.

[15 December 1840]
Decbr 15.
Hastened homeward to day, arrived early in the afternoon at Nannima, where I delayed for a few hours & was surprised to learn, that Poor Harry died not many hours after I had left, so that it seems his apparent liveliness that morning, was a sign of death approaching & not of recovery.

People in WellPro Directory: Taylor, Reverend Richard

Journal 8: 1840, p.45.
Class Mark: C N/O 47/13.
MS page no: 3-220

[page] 45

[17 December 1840]
Decbr 17.
Had a long & interesting conversation with Cochrane to day & afterwards went to prayer with him. It is evident to me that he often has serious thoughts. Expressing his desire for a new heart he observed with much feeling & emphasis: “But I can not make my heart new!” “Are you certain you cannot” I rejoined when he answered: “I am certain.” I told him I was pleased to hear that he felt convinced of his being unable to become a new man by his own strength & directed him to discovering prayer & the grace of God in Christ Jesus.

[20 December 1840]
Decbr 20.
Only one Gentleman at Church besides ourselves & men and the few Natives. This is truly discouraging. I had no heart to use the Sermon I had prepared, but gave my little audience an extemporaneous address.

[23 December 1840]
Decbr 23.
Sat for about two hours together with Cochrane; answering on religious subjects and derived myself some comfort & encouragement from the conversation. I trust he is not far from the Kingdom of God. At all events, I am certain that he reflects with more seriousness & enters more deeply & with more interest into the meaning of Scripture truths than I have ever witnessed in any other Aborigine. I have long entertained some hope of him for though he is often led astray by the influence of others and shows at times less concern yet his religious impressions again & again. Of late he has been seriously afflicted with rheumatic pain so that he is almost unable to walk, which circumstance, I imagine, adds greatly to his thoughtful & serious frame of mind.

[25 December 1840]
Decbr 25.
This was a poor Christmas day indeed! How distressing & discouraging! No body at Church but our two White men and about half a dozen Blacks. Mr Porter being poorly was obliged to leave before the Service was over. I had again written a sermon; but did not think it suitable for my poor congregation & preached therefore extempore. Our Aboriginal youths were in a very bad careless mood determined to run away to the Camp immediately after Service and laughed at all my warnings & exhortations. When I spoke of leaving them Bungary replied: “Well you may, we know now enough.” This is in a great measure the fruit of all that has passed on this Mission so disgraceful to the Good Cause. They know to take advantage of it; a short time since when I warned Bungary against having

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any thing to do with a certain worthless treacherous Aborigine, he replied: “We are not like Missionaries, we love one another.” What one’s feeling must be under such circumstances our friends may imagine. Not that this expression describes their real & constant feeling towards me or us; several* are fully aware of the justice of the steps we have taken against Mr W. in spite of all the insinuations of the latter. But when convenient for their purpose they will take advantage of what has occurred & repel reproof administered to them. Were Mr W. altogether removed out of our neighbourhood, things would soon take a more favourable turn.
In the evening I rode to a European Station Narrowgal, about 13 miles off where I had rather a better congregation than at home viz: 10 Europeans & 2 Blacks.

[27 December 1840]
Decbr 27.
I administered the Lord’s Supper today having 4 Communicants viz: Mrs G., Mr Porter and a pious couple who came the distance of 13 miles. I am grieved & ashamed to confess that it is upwards of 18 months since we had the Sacrament for disunion prevented it hitherto. Such, I am aware, has been the case on the Mission in former times before I came here. No wonder therefore, that the Mission should have done no more good than it has.
Our youths have for several days been very unsettled since there are a number of the elderly people at the Camp about 2 miles off, they will be constantly running there & any rate spend their night with them. Very few came to attend Church this morning and that very late. Even poor Cochrane, though hardly able to walk could no longer resist but must spend a day or two with his countrymen at the camp. I went this evening to the camp & had some conversation with him as he was laying quietly & rather sedately by himself all the rest were sitting in companies and had a great deal of talk among themselves so that I had very little opportunity to speak to any. I also conversed with poor Jane who has been living these last 6 weeks in the bush after about four years stay at the Mission. She assured me she did not feel happy at the camp & would come back to us did not others dissuade her. This is the Girl who at times evinced signs of religious impressions.

[28 December 1840]
Decbr 28.
Several of the Young men came from the Camp this morning & did some work during the day but off they went again in the evening. Tommy who is at present our Cook stayed alone. They expect the Bathurst tribe up to perform a grand corroberry, in their opinion so important an event that it is worthwhile talking about some time before

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[29 December 1840]
Decbr 29.
Only Bungary & Bonaparte came from the Camp, the former had some exercise in writing with which he is going on well. He did not like my [?] versions[?] on the conduct of the Blacks & shows much of an independent spirit. Soon they were off again. Tommy continues still.

[30 December 1840]
Decbr 30.
Several of the Young men came from the camp this morning but as it appeared only to get some breakfast for soon they were all off and Tommy our Cook, with them. They now all old & young proceeded to the appointed place for the long expected performance of a new dance. Foolish as it may look they should make so much of their wild dances, it strikes me that their folly is no greater, considering their savage condition, than the parade there is with many highly civilised people about Balls & theatrical performances.
Cochrance, from sheer necessity I fear, stayed at home. He was reading his Bible most of the day, at times to himself & occasionally to me and from various questions he asked me I could perceive that he does not care so thoughtlessly as the generality of the Young men. Having read to him some portions in Revelations, he asked me afterwards when the Thousand years should begin when Satan will be bound; why Satan was cast out from heaven; whether he at any time was a man, Whether he ever died, Whether he had no body etc. The poor Fellow wished me to make up my bed in the hut where he was that he might talk to me all night.

[31 December 1840]
Decbr 31.
Cochrane went on reading in the same way as he did yesterday in the Bible, Prayer Book & Cottage Hymn Book. One thing struck & pleased me much: in he passing by he stopt me & directed my attention to the Collect for Septuagesima Sunday pointing out to me more particularly the Passage --- “That we who are justly punished for our offences may be mercifully delivered by the goodness.” as if intimating how applicable this was to himself. I feel more & more convinced that his mind is influenced by serious thoughts. He had been reading to Mrs Gunther a Tract entitled: “Poor Sarah”, a converted Indian which affected him much and he called out to me “Ah! when shall I be like Sarah!” We are very fearful his illness will turn into a consumption. But it would prove no small consolation to us; if he as we trust should find the Lord in time. Yes it would prove an unspeakable encouragement to us for our work if it should please the Lord to evince His saving grace in one

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of these poor Aborigines of whom I fear no decided instance of conversion can as yet be recorded.
I am less doubtful of Cochrane’s sincerity in his inquiries as he has entertained serious thought for a considerable time past when he enjoyed good health. I hope & pray his affliction may be sanctified whether designed for life or death!
I can only add as a General remark that apparently our Mission is almost ruined and our prospects gloomy indeed and though I would not judge altogether from appearances yet I feel pretty confident that different & better efforts must be made & the Society consider more the wants of the Mission & attend to them if we shall be doing good. I am utterly discouraged & displeased to waste my time in the way I am obliged to do not that the Society however remedied the great loss when it was almost too late & other evils seen to be disregarded. I may perhaps write more about it or a long.

J. Gunther

Rev J. Gunther’s Journal
for 1840