xii. April-June 1835
[note] Rec Feb 10/36
Rev. W. Watson's Journal from Apl 1st to June 30th 1835
[1 April 1835 ??]
Apl 10th [sic] Intelligence has reached us that Gentleman Jackey is dead. This is a circumstance that may affect the minds of some of the Natives. They have been collected from a distance of many miles in every direction to celebrate Waganna (a dance) to Baiami a being of considerable note amongst them. The place at which they assembled is Babidyal; literally the land of nettles from Babina nettle. It was said a short time ago that Baiami was about to kill all the Europeans in this country because some of them had seduced his wife. The prophecy passed away without being fulfilled, now it is reported that he will destroy all Natives who either live with Europeans; lend their females or children to them; or, do not celebrate this "Wagganna". Gentleman Jackey had six wives, if that honourable name be allowable here, of whom not more than one was generally with him. The others were living with Europeans, from whom he received the wages of iniquity. Jackey had united with his brethren in the Waganna; but that same night was taken with, according to the representations of the natives, violent pain at the heart and died two days afterwards. He was probably not more than 25 years of age; and was more free from disease than any other I have known of his age. Baiami is said to live in the East, and Tharrariwingal* his father, in the west. Both live near the sea. The natives say that when Baiami gave the "Gudthi" (song) which they now chaunt [sic] to him, he gave them also wooden gods which after the first celebration of the "Waganna" they burnt. He also commanded them to use small Twigs about 9 inches in length which they were to beat against each other in the "Waganna' and then to burn them. These Twigs are named "Mudthir' from Mudthirra which signifies repeated beating or, thrashing. It is said that the road taken by Baiami and his wife when they left the house of Tharrarwirgal is marked by deep pits in the earth where they slept. In one place is a small mountain of stone of a superior quality; One night when Baiami was on his way, he was bitten by an ant, and from the wound immediately proceeded this mountain. The natives say Baiami is not to be lightly spoke of, nor his song taken in vain. His father Tharrariwingal is said to be the author of "Thanna thanna" (small pock). He has his name from a large tree growing out of his thigh, Tharra thigh, and wirigal a cutter of wood. Burranbin "The uncreated one" is
is said to be the greatest of all beings; but the natives say little about him. The circumstance of their having apprehensions of such superior being is more than was at first anticipated. They have a name for angels which they say live on a high mountain, whose food is only honey, and whose employment is like Parson's. They are said to be white. I have now no doubt that there is among these natives a settled belief in the existence of a "First cause." Pride has led many of them to deify one another; and to consider in many instances each other as the author of what indeed can only be wrought an Almighty arm. These simple circumstances are related in order that those who many peruse the journals may look upon our charge as not being so destitute of knowledge of the Divine Being as we in our ignorance and haste represented them to be. Doubtless the attainment of the language will open to our minds a deeper insight into their real views. Kannaimirra signifies to know every thing, not in the sense of wisdom or skill; but in that of all seeing. As this cannot be applicable to any finite creature, it must have its origin in a knowledge (at some period however) of the omniscient Deity. Again Ma with many of it compounds signifies to make; But "Wallungmarra" (or) "Wallungma" signifies to make out of nothing - to create.
One day in a year is celebrated by them in giving presents to each other of such things as they possess. This they say has long been a custom with them. Its origin is unknown to us at present. I hope I may be excused for thus digressing from the generally adopted plan of recording in our Journals, only our labours &c among the Natives.
[8 April 1835]
8th Three young men came up to day. Gungin (Jemmy Buckley) our young man says that he was miserable in the Bush, that made him come home. He always calls our house his home. I fear he is not miserable on account of his sins.
[12 April 1835]
12th Seven natives at church to day. I read prayers to them in their own language *.
* From this time when mention is made of Reading Prayers or Preaching to the Natives, to prevent tautology, it is to be understood in the Aboriginal language.
13th Several females came up to day. After having been supplied with provisions, they went away. Three young men that were here also went away towards evening. Much pains was taken to induce our girls to go; they were told that as the natives were going to sing to Baiami, if they did not also attend they would die in consequence. Mrs Watson was making straw bonnets for them at the time, which probably had a counteracting effect as they did not evidence much desire to go. Otherwise they are frequently influenced by the foolish and false tales of the elder Natives. After prayers, I and my boy Dickey went and found about 20 of them 2 miles from our house; but there was no singing. The story had probably been told to the girls to decoy them for a worse purpose. I found an old native Jemmy Buckley very ill, suffering from inflammation of the lungs.
[14 April 1835]
14th J. Buckley, his wives, and several others came up to day. After they had been supplied with provisions they went and encamped near the well, about 400 yards from the Mission House. This evening I took Jemmy a Blister, and some medicine. The latter was dissolved in Tea and made very sweet, to cover the unpleasant taste. The medium he took; but of the application of the Blister he was much afraid. One of his wives however who had derived much benefit from one, advised him to have it applied to which he assented.
[15 April 1835]
15 The old man had taken his blister off soon after I had left the camp last evening, which shews that they are not very attentive patients. The medicine appears to have done him some good. Taught the natives prayers at Church this morning.
[16 April 1835]
16 Had family prayers with the Natives in church to day. Several attended, and behaved well.
[17 April 1835]
17 Crucifixion Day. Many Natives attended prayers in the morning; but none were present at the English Service except one of our children. Some excused themselves this evening by saying this was not Sunday. Our girls remembered the discourse pretty well to day, it was what they had been taught.
[18 April 1835]
Sat 18th J.B. has recovered; for his restoration I fear he feels no gratitude to the Author of all good.
[19 April 1835]
Sund 19th Six Natives at church to day. Some had gone early in the morning to fish. They excused themselves by saying that they did not know it was Sunday. If true the fault is ours in not being careful last evening to remind them. Our children remembered the Sermon very well to day. Taught them Watson's* Catechism &c as usual.
[20 April 1835]
Mond 20 Stayed with the Natives at the Camp this evening. On enquiring if they understood me some answered in the negative. I then went over the prayer in separate sentences and they said they understood it, I afterwards conversed with them and felt my soul watered from above, and entertain hopes that some of the Natives were touched with Grace Divine.
People in WellPro Directory: Watson, Mrs
[22 April 1835]
Wednes. 22 Many Natives have come up these two days. About 40 here now. I prayed with them at their different places, and endeavoured to converse with them; but their hearts do not appear to be prepared for the reception of Divine truth. Gave Medicine to several who are sick. One old man who has been here but once before, though very ill, refused to take medicine.
[24 April 1835]
Thursd 24. Preached to different parties of natives this morning; many laughed where they ought to have wept: viz. at the recital of some of their improper and unholy proceedings. Some nodded at the close of every sentence as if they understood what was said. One female the wife of a professed native Doctor was very ill this morning: I wished to let her blood; but she was unwilling till I had fetched her husband from the Camp. She is much easier this evening. Spent most of this day at the camp conversing with the natives, that some understood me is evident from their asking some questions respecting thier future state. I was asked by some of them if I should ever return to England, I answered that it was not my intention to return; that I had come to live and die among the natives to teach them the way to heaven. They exclaimed Gunning dyang! An expression of admiration; but which literally signifies motherless. When asking several questions, I was pleased to find that one who had once lived with us; but had now been absent for sometime answered readily, which shews as far as knowledge is considered our labour is not altogether in vain. They have had a "Waganna" or Nature dance to night in which they sang to Baiami. When they were ready they sent messages with fire sticks to summon us and direct our path. They beat small sticks as mentioned above. The song is very short, and all that I could learn from it or of it was something respecting angels; carrying on the back; playing to him; and throwing into the fire. Their Poets enjoy like all others the liberty of using language different from what is used in general conversation. As we were returning home, our ears were assailed with loud Shrieks; on going to ascertain the cause, I found that it proceeded from several females, relatives to Gentleman Jackey, lately dead, whose absence from this festivity reminded them of the painful circumstance. A shooting star expended itself at a short distance from our house this evening. The natives were much alarmed, always viewing such a phenomena as an omen of death.
[25 April 1835]
Frid Apl 25th All the Natives came up this morning, in separate parties and at different times. I preached to one party, and from their deeply sighing I could not but hope that they felt all was not right within. When I addressed the females, afterwards, one of them was much affected. She had been an inmate of our house; but her husband took her away. In the afternoon while addressing another and when speaking of the consequences of living and dying unregenerate, one, and another exclaimed not me I believe, not me I believe. One of them confessed that he was afraid of going to hell; but that he had never killed anyone. They have this characteristic mark of fallen nature in common with others. None will freely acknowledge his guilt. Several have gone away; we have 30 here now. We begin to hope for brighter Scenes. We trust the Son of righteousness will soon gild our moral horizon with His sacred rays. 4 boys who were formerly with us have returned. 3 of them sent word that they wish'd to come again, so I commissioned our young man J. Buckley to seek them out and tell them to come.
[27 April 1835]
Sund 27th As we have so many Natives here, I this morning commenced a separate service for them; however not more than 16 attended. The females & males will not generally assemble together. Our old man Bobbagul was affected while I was conversing with him and the children in the Kitchen. Addressed the Natives (females) at the Camp in the afternoon.
[28 April 1835]
Mond 28th Many Natives have gone away, though they were well supplied with food. They have however heard important truths. May it please the Good Spirit of God to Seal instruction on their minds.
[1 May 1835]
Friday May 1st The Anniversary of our safe arrival in the colony. A day of thankfulness for mercies enjoyed, and of deep humiliation for unprofitableness [sic]. May we have grace to live for God and souls. Many natives came up to day. One of the men Geordie Brother to King Bobby had only one of his wives with him, I asked where the other was, he in a joke said "she is dead." I however embraced the opportunity of speaking on her unprepared state. He was very angry and extremely agitated, and asked me* in a very furious manner how many females I wished to have. He said that no other gentleman spoke about natives being wicked; that all other gentlemen were good. I spoke to him seriously about his soul. He sighed very much, as he did on a former occasion when I was preaching. Two females who heard our conversation were affected.
[2 May 1835]
Sat 2 Many of the Natives have gone to a Station at a short distance, as they say, to get pumpkins. 16 only remain.
[3 May 1835]
Sund. 3 Had Service for the Natives, at church. 16 present. It was extremely cold, and I apprehend we shall not be able during the winter to have them at church. We must in that case preach to them at the camp. The Lord's blessing is not confined to Buildings although raised for, and dedicated to His honour and glory.
Two of the boys who returned, have conducted themselves much worse then they formerly did; they are always committing some mischievous acts. Sammy Marsden who was with us only a short time before is a very quiet peaceable boy.
[6 May 1835]
Wed 6th Twenty natives here now. I was much grieved with some expressions uttered by some Europeans as they passed the camp of native females to day.
[7 May 1835]
Thursd 7th More natives have come up to day. Our children continue to improve in Scriptural knowledge, and in several instances have evidenced a sensibility of their state as sinners. When I was reading over some sentences in the language to the natives to day in order to ascertain their correctness, I came to this Why do you not look out for Opossums? At which our old man Bobbagul lifted up his head and briskly replied "Because I have got no tomahawk."
[8 May 1835]
Friday 8th Three of the four boys who lately returned, have again taken their departure; so uncertain is the keeping of them for any length of time. Seventy natives here, they have had a Waganna to night. In general their songs are of the lowest and most obscene description; calculated only to fan the flame of their corrupt desires. As are their songs, such are their practices. It is impossible for any human beings to be guilty of vices more abominable. While we cannot but feel abhorrent at the conduct, we cannot forbear pitying their precious souls. At the same time we rejoice to know that the blood of Christ cleanseth them from all Sin.
[9 May 1835]
Sat 9th This morning before breakfast I went to the camp and preached first to 16 young men, and then to all the rest choosing a central position so that all might hear. Some laughed, others appeared to be serious, two finally were affected. I afterwards gave provisions to them all.
Amidst all of our discouraging circumstances I never entertained higher hopes of usefulness to our sable charge than I do at present. We do not expect that addressing them in their own language will operate as a charm; but we do trust that the good Lord will bless His own word to the purpose for which He sent it. I have just cut up from 60 to 70 pounds of Beef to be ready for them in the morning: for if it were given to them to night, they would not sleep before they had eaten the whole. Two boys who were here sometime ago have returned.
[10 May 1835]
Sund. 10th This morning I enquired of King Bobby whether the natives would go into the Church, as it was very cold he said they preferred being outside. I therefore took my station under a large Shed. And, leaving motives out of the question, it was certainly a most pleasing sight, to behold upwards of 40 half naked savages running to hear the word of God at the sound
of the church going bell[?]. Their deportment and attention during the whole of the service were truly pleasing. When I had concluded they began to speak aloud respecting the natives being all wicked. One and another said not I not I. In the afternoon I preached to the females at the camp about 20 in number. Many of the men have gone away. Old J. Buckley has left his two wives Poll. and Biddy to remain in our house which affords me an opportunity of close conversation with them. Biddy says very little. Poll is often affected.
[11 May 1835]
Mond. 11th Being scarce of men I have to day been thrashing [sic], and thankful I am that we have plenty of good sound wheat to thrash [sic]. We last year reaped 600 Bushels of good wheat from 16 acres, and we now feel the great convenience and advantage of it. Last season we had to fetch all our supplies on a journey of 200 miles. This together with the hugh [sic] price of Flour 30 shillings for 100 pounds and the low state of the mission funds prevented us from being so charitable to our charge as we wished. It is a hard thing to say to a native "I cannot afford to give you bread."
[note] (Perhaps this may be examined[?] from the experience of W.W. – [?])
[12 May 1835]
Tuesd. 12th One of the boys has been thrashing [sic] to day and he frames very well. Two females wives of the late gentleman Jackey are remaining with us, they are almost covered with wetted pipe clay, their mourning dress. It is said they will mourn for 12 months.
[15 May 1835]
Friday 15th Several Natives have been up to day.
[17 May 1835]
Sund. 17th Preached to 18 natives in the Church this morning. Being told that there were many natives about 8 or 9 miles distant. After English Service I took a little cheese and bread in my pocket and rode in the direction in which they were said to be. I found between 20 and 30. And preached to them. In conversation afterwards, one of them asked me if the Son of God did indeed die. Geordie, who was so very angry the other night, now said that he understood a little, but that he should understand more by and by. On my way I called at a Blacksmith's who appeared in his working dress. When I asked Are you at work to day? He anxiously enquired what is to day? Is it any particular day? He could scarcely believe that it was the Lord's day; However he immediately shut up his shop, and expressed much regret that he had not know what day it was.
It has just occurred to my mind that perhaps some sincere Christian (who is a Bell founder) would esteem it a privelege [sic] to know he has an opportunity to contribute to the Mission among these lost Sons of Adam by presenting it with a Bell to summon them* to church. They often encamp at a distance of a mile or a mile & a half from the Mission House, and consequently cannot hear our small hand bell.
[18 May 1835]
Monday 18th This morning we had 30 Natives, several of whom are gone away to a station 3 miles distant where, they have been informed, a Bullock has been killed.
[19 May 1835]
Tuesd 19th Our old man Bobbagul was taken very ill last night at the camp. He is suffering the effects of a violent cold. His right knee and thigh are so swollen and so painful that he cannot turn himself. After breakfast I took some Ammonia liniment and went to the camp. When the other natives saw me take off my coat and double up my Shirt sleeves they appeared alarmed, not knowing what I was going to do. I am under the necessity of doing these things for the Natives for none of themselves will take the trouble. They would pour on the oil and leave. When I had done my hands as may be well supposed were as Black as those of a chimney sweep.
[21 May 1835]
Thursd 21st The old man is no better. In the forenoon I folded his leg and thigh up in flannel but this evening I find that he has taken it off.
[22 May 1835]
Frid 22 Several more natives have come up. One of them has decoyed the wife of an old man from him.
[23 May 1835]
Sat 23rd More Natives have come up.
[24 May 1835]
Sund. 24th I preached in the church to 18 natives this morning. This evening Kobon Jackey, his wife, and another native named Wallamin came up scarcely able to crawl. Talk they in Britain of the happy condition of Heathens! I would that such could take but an [sic] transient glance at the physical wretchedness of these natives, the effects of their moral habits. They would most assuredly become supporters of Christian Missions.
[26 May 1835]
Tues. 26th A female has come up, to day with a half cast child very young. She has been given away by her husband to another. 36 natives here, 10 of whom are on the sick list.
[27 May 1835]
Wed. 27th Two European Servants in the neighbourhood went to the camp last night for improper purposes: and this morning two females have left the camp to go where these men are to receive the wages of their iniquity. I heard a noise about 12 o'clock, and went very near to the camp, but all was quiet, and the natives appeared to be asleep. The natives say that one of them (who holds a Ticket of leave) was armed with a Pistol.
[28 May 1835]
Thursd 28 One of the men went to the damp last night and succeeded in persuading one of the females to leave us and go to live with him. These are some of our painful trials.
[31 May 1835]
Sund May 31st Preached in the church to 20 Natives this morning. Several are sick. Old Bobbagul is very ill. Instructed the children in the afternoon as usual. I find Mrs Trimmer's* Scripture Catechisms very useful.
[2 June 1835]
Tues June 2nd Two of our Native youths have gone into the Bush to look for some of our strayed Cattle. The Thermometer is 29 in the shade which to us is extremely cold. All the natives, except Mr Handts boys, are cooked for every day by us, and it is pleasing to hear how correctly they ask a blessing on, before they partake of the food provided for them.
[5 June 1835]
Friday 5th On going to the camp this evening, I found an old woman weeping; on enquiring the cause, I learnt that one of her dogs had been killed by one belonging to another female. I told her not to weep, as I would give her plenty of food, and she would not want a dog to hunt with. This afforded her little consolation.
[6 June 1835]
Sat 6th Some more Natives came up to day. 43 here now.
[7 June 1835]
Sund 7th As the weather is so cold the Natives cannot be easily persuaded to come to church. I therefore went to the camp and preached to 40 in two companies. It is very pleasing to hear two children at the camp, 2 or 3 years of age repeat morning and evening prayers. O that out of the mouths of these sucklings* God may be pleased to perfect praise.
[8 June 1835]
Mond 8th Many natives have gone from here into the Bush, they said they were going to look out Opossums to make cloaks, the weather was so cold. 19 now here.
[11 June 1835]
Thursday 11th Most of my sick patients are convalescent except Bobbagul who remains very ill. J.B. my native youth accompanied me on a ride of 22 miles in the Bush to day. We did not see more than 10 or 12 Natives. A Young man who came to the Establishment a few weeks ago sick, and who went away as soon as he recovered, is now dangerously ill. I would have taken him home with us in the Gig; but the old man his father would not consent. It is painful to see them on the verge of eternity unconscious of their unpreparedness [sic] for the world of Spirits.
[12 June 1835]
Frid 12 I asked one of the females this morning, who had preserved her alive during the night: she answered that she did not know, though she had just thanked God in prayer for that very benefit. They are very ready to say "don't know" in reference to religious subjects, when they will immediately afterwards give evidence that they do know. But this proves that no serious impression is made upon the mind of the individual thus answering. Old Bobbagul is so very ill that I had him brought on a sheet of Bark to an empty Hut close to our house, where I can give him Tea and other comfortables [sic]; as well as medicines more regularly, than I could at the camp. When Mrs Watson went into the Hut to see him, he held up a flannel cap (being unable to speak) which she had made him as if he would say, here it is.
People in WellPro Directory: Watson, Mrs
[14 June 1835]
Sund 14th After preaching to the Natives to day I enquired if they never felt sorry for their sins. The answer was "No." Do you feel no love to the great God for giving His son to die to save you from eternal misery? "No." It is clear that although they may understand our words, they do not feel their application. Whilst we endeavour to set before them the Attributes of the Deity as manifested in the Creation and government of the world; and as exhibited in the moral law; we do not neglect that which may indeed be of far greater weight with them, viz. the doctrine of Redemption through the Sufferings and death of Jesus Christ. I often feel, when endeavouring to shew them the sinfulness of their conduct, what danger I am in of conveying to their minds the idea of a cruel and vengeful Deity. In this point as in all others we need the guiding influences of the Holy Ghost, that we may not be guilty of the sin of not Glorifying God in the sight of the people. Bobbagul is must better, to day.
[15 June 1835]
Mond 15th Our Harpes[?] are again upon the willows. I have discovered that nefarious practices have been carrying on, between two who are under our care. This is not more than might be expected from their early habits, and remembering that they are Heathens. The circumstance is severely painful. It is however some consolation that while one has yielded to the influence of her corrupt nature, another has successfully resisted temptation. We were apparently going on comfortably. Some of the young men had returned to their lessons and our hopes were a little raised.
[17 June 1835]
Wednes 17th All our natives are recovered except Bobbagul, and he can walk about with the assistance of a walking stick. It is remarkable that he remains so contentedly in the hut alone. And the other natives are too lazy to take any fuel to him. One young man said to me the other day "never mind him, let him die."
[18 June 1835]
Thursd. 18th Some more natives have returned, so, that our number is now above 30. Some who have come up are very ill; and others who have returned during their absence have evidenced the small degree of influence which their previous instructions had upon their minds.
[20 June 1835]
Sat. 20th Several men have gone away, it is said to provide weapons, against an anticipated contest with some other Tribe.
[21 June 1835]
Sunday 21st Had Service with the Natives in the hut this morning. When I went to the camp in the afternoon I was sorry to find that several had gone to the
River for Shell fish; although they had all received provisions from us in the morning. So long however as they remain destitute of Christian principles we can scarcely expect them to pay due deference to the Lord's day. When I was speaking with them in the evening on the subject, one of them said, she should never die; but that she believed I wanted to make her die. I enquired where was her father? "dead" - "Mother?" "dead." Why then do you think that you will not die? She made me no reply.
[23 June 1835]
Tuesd 23 Our number is reduced to 16 by several going away to day.
[24 June 1835]
Wednes 24th A Gentleman came to day from a Station two miles distant to say that a native female was found dead near his stockyard, and an infant lying by her side. I succeeded in persuading two of our Native females to accompany us to the place for the purpose of interring her; but the European servants at the place were just about to do it. The child is half cast and very weakly. It cannot speak not is it able to walk. I think its age may be from 15 to 18 months. As children indeed all human beings in warm climates are more forward than in cold ones. The Lord has thus committed another child to our care, if it be spared may we be enabled to nurse it for Him.
[27 June 1835]
Sat 27th I asked one of the females at the camp, if she knew that day tomorrow was. She said "yes, Sunday we talk about it altogether."
[28 June 1835]
Sund. 28. When I was reading the Missionary Record to our Natives to day mention was made of two young men by name whose mothers were now present, they immediately rose up, and came to look at the Book. This afforded me an opportunity of speaking to them on the advantages of being able to read. Our children read; this afternoon, the history of Christ's sufferings and death as recorded in the 26th and 27th chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel. They said it was very wicked and cruel of the Jews to seek the death of Jesus. I put the following question to one of them. If I were beating Dickey and he wept very much would you not also weep especially if he were innocent? - "Yes," "and I should think you did very wrong." I then remarked you would weep if you saw Dickey severely beaten; but you read and hear of Jesus Christ being scourged, and nailed to the tree: and you do not weep; nor are you sorry for your sins. It was sin that made it necessary for Jesus to die. If there had been no sin Jesus would not have died. It was Satan that led the wicked Jews to crucify Jesus; and it is Satan that leads little children to do wrong in any, and in every way. One of the children remarked
that Joseph was the father of Jesus. "no said Dickey, God was His father." They then began to speak of another Joseph, mentioning many remarkable circumstances recorded in his history. I allow them to wander from one subject to another in this way occasionally because it affords opportunity of shewing the different times when, and circumstances under which persons of the same name lived. It is very pleasing to hear how much of Scripture they remember. The following conversation took place in the evening, unprovoked by any remarks or question of mine. One of the girls asked, "Will all persons come out of heaven and hell at the day of judgment? Yes. When the great Angel blows the great trumpet will it sound all over; and every body that has lived, rise again? Yes. - There will be no Sun then; the moon will be turned into blood, and the stars will fall. Will Angels come with Jesus Christ? - yes. Then he will try every body out of the books? Yes. Will God say tot he wicked people, go away into everlasting fire? Yes. Will wicked people then be sorry? Will they kneel down and pray? It will then be too late to pray.
[29 June 1835]
Mond 29th Several natives have come up to day. More than 30 here now. Warrabin (Nanny) of whom mention has often made in our Diaries has had a child, by an European, which is dead. It is difficult to say whether she has killed it, or it was dead when born. She says the latter was the case. We have 4 females here now, murderers of their own children. 3 of them have destroyed 3 infants each; and some of them in the most cruel manner. It does not appear that they ever kill any Black infants, only those which are halfcast. One gentleman who is living in the midst of his servants, about 16 miles from this place, told me a short time ago that one of his [?] shepherds (holding a Ticket of Leave) had 20 of the Aboriginal females whom he kept for improper purposes. Master and Overseer say that there is no law against such proceedings; and in general the men are allowed to act in those cases as their depraved principles suggest. O how large a debt do Britons owe these Aboriginal natives for the physical and moral injuries inflicted by their fellow countrymen.
[signed] J.C.S. Handt
Read in Committee
July 17th 1835
No[?] July 27/35
[note] Rev W. Watson's Journal
April to June 1835